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土壤处理防治小麦田杂草节节麦药剂筛选

王恒智 赵孔平 张晓林 张乐乐 董秀霞 朱宝林 刘伟堂

王恒智, 赵孔平, 张晓林, 张乐乐, 董秀霞, 朱宝林, 刘伟堂. 土壤处理防治小麦田杂草节节麦药剂筛选[J]. 农药学学报. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0032
引用本文: 王恒智, 赵孔平, 张晓林, 张乐乐, 董秀霞, 朱宝林, 刘伟堂. 土壤处理防治小麦田杂草节节麦药剂筛选[J]. 农药学学报. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0032
Hengzhi WANG, Kongping ZHAO, Xiaolin ZHANG, Lele ZHANG, Xiuxia DONG, Baolin ZHU, Weitang LIU. Screening of pre-emergence herbicides to control a noxious weed Aegilops tauschii in wheat fields[J]. Chinese Journal of Pesticide Science. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0032
Citation: Hengzhi WANG, Kongping ZHAO, Xiaolin ZHANG, Lele ZHANG, Xiuxia DONG, Baolin ZHU, Weitang LIU. Screening of pre-emergence herbicides to control a noxious weed Aegilops tauschii in wheat fields[J]. Chinese Journal of Pesticide Science. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0032

土壤处理防治小麦田杂草节节麦药剂筛选

doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0032
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划 (2016YFD0300701);山东省“双一流”建设专项 (SYL2017XTTD11)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    王恒智,男,博士研究生,E-mail:hengzhiwang1993@163.com

    通讯作者:

    刘伟堂,通信作者 (Author for correspondence),男,副教授,主要从事除草剂毒理及杂草抗药性研究,Email:liuwt@sdau.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: S482.4;TQ450.2

Screening of pre-emergence herbicides to control a noxious weed Aegilops tauschii in wheat fields

  • 摘要: 节节麦是我国冬小麦田中的一种恶性杂草。本文通过室内生物测定和田间药效试验筛选了有效防治节节麦的土壤处理剂,为冬小麦田节节麦的化学防治提供理论依据。温室试验结果发现:氟噻草胺、噁草酮和异丙隆对节节麦毒力较高,GR50值分别为37.2、15.7和349.3 g/hm2,均低于各自田间推荐剂量,但其在小麦与节节麦之间的选择性指数为0.6~1.1 (< 2),说明安全性差。异丙隆与噁草酮按不同质量比复配后,对节节麦联合作用类型均呈现加成作用,其中以质量比4 : 1复配后的除草活性高于异丙隆单剂,且各单剂对小麦的安全性有所提高,选择性指数达2.0。田间药效试验结果显示:异丙隆与噁草酮复配后在有效成分600~900 g/hm2剂量下于杂草出苗前进行土壤喷雾处理,药后60 d对雀麦、节节麦、猪殃殃和播娘蒿的防除效果达86%以上,增产效果明显,达13%以上,且对小麦安全。
  • 表  1  供试除草剂及室内生物活性剂量

    Table  1.   Herbicides and their doses used in the whole-plant dose–response experiments

    供试除草剂
    Herbicide
    生产或提供厂家
    Companies
    剂量
    Doses/(g/hm2)
    900 g/L丁草胺乳油 butachlor 900 g/L EC 侨昌现代农业有限公司 Qiaochang Modern Agricultural Co., Ltd. 1600, 800, 400, 200, 100, 50, 0
    330 g/L二甲戊灵乳油 pendimethalin 330 g/L EC 山东麒麟农化有限公司 Qilin Agricultural Co., Ltd. 2000, 1000, 500, 250, 125, 62.5, 0
    48%仲丁灵乳油 butralin 480 EC 山东绿邦作物科学股份有限公司 Shanong Lübang Crop Science Co., Ltd. 2000, 1000, 500, 250, 125, 62.5, 0
    50%吡氟酰草胺可湿性粉剂 diflufenican 500 WP 江苏辉丰生物农业股份有限公司 Jiangsu Huifeng Biological Agriculture Co., Ltd. 400, 200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 0
    41%氟噻草胺悬浮剂 flufenacet 410 SC 京博农化科技股份有限公司 Jingbo Agrochem Co., Ltd. 400, 200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 0
    380 g/L噁草酮悬浮剂 oxadiazon 380 g/L SC 江苏龙灯化学有限公司 Jiangsu Rotam Chemical Co., Ltd. 200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25, 0
    50%异丙隆可湿性粉剂 isoproturon 500 WP 江苏快达农化股份有限公司 Jiangsu Kuaida Agrochemical Co., Ltd. 3200, 1600, 800, 400, 200, 100, 0
    70%氟唑磺隆水分散粒剂 flucarbazone-Na 700 WDG 山东绿霸化工股份有限公司 Shandong Lüba Chemical Co., Ltd. 240, 120, 60, 30, 15, 7.5, 0
    注:剂量均表示有效成分剂量。Note: The herbicide doses indicate the active ingredients.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  八种除草剂对节节麦的生物活性

    Table  2.   The biological activities of the eight herbicides against Ae. tauschii

    供试药剂  
    Herbicides  
    回归方程
    Regression equation
    相关系数
    r
    GR50 (95%CL)/
    (g/hm2)
    GR90 (95%CL)/
    (g/hm2)
    大田推荐剂量
    Recommended dose/(g/hm2)
    丁草胺 butachlor y = 1.13 + 1.51x 0.9775 356.0 (278.8~464.7) 2525.8 (1492.5~4274.7) 810~1080
    仲丁灵 butralin y = 0.78 + 1.49x 0.9873 698.1 (577.9~843.3) 5077.4 (3208.0~8036.2) 1440~2160
    二甲戊灵 pendimethalin y = 1.44 + 1.32x 0.9904 505.8 (433.3~590.4) 4757.6 (3228.7~7010.5) 742.5~990
    氟噻草胺 flufenacet y = 0.73 + 2.26x 0.9787 77.0 (60.5~98.0) 284.0 (202.2~398.9) 600~750
    吡氟酰草胺 diflufenican y = 2.22 + 1.31x 0.9553 135.5 (94.6~194.1) 1297.5 (496.3~3392.4) 153.75
    噁草酮 oxadiazon y = 3.11 + 1.58x 0.9846 15.7 (12.3~20.2) 101.8 (77.2~134.2) 351~468
    异丙隆 isoproturon y = 0.44 + 1.79x 0.9885 349.3 (279.7~436.4) 1814.1 (1453.8~2263.7) 1125~1500
    氟唑磺隆 flucarbazone-Na y = 2.25 + 1.75x 0.9783 37.2 (28.7~48.3) 200.7 (138.3~291.2) 30~45
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  三种除草剂对小麦的生物活性及其在小麦和节节麦之间的选择性指数

    Table  3.   The biological activities of the three herbicides against wheat and their selectivity index between wheat and Ae. tauschii

    试验药剂
    Herbicides
    回归方程
    Regression equation
    相关系数
    r
    GR10 (95%CL)/
    (g/hm2)
    选择性指数
    Selectivity index
    氟噻草胺 flufenacet y = −2.50 + 2.76x 0.9778 177.5 (139.7~225.6) 0.6
    噁草酮 oxadiazon y = −1.74 + 2.72x 0.9953 101.9 (91.5~113.4) 1.0
    异丙隆 isoproturon y = −10.93 + 4.46x 0.9988 1916.3 (1796.7~2043.8) 1.1
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  异丙隆与噁草酮复配对节节麦的联合作用评价

    Table  4.   The evaluation of the joint effects of isoproturon mixed with oxadiazon against Ae. tauschii

    异丙隆
    isoproturon/(g/hm2)
    噁草酮
    oxadiazon/(g/hm2)
    实测鲜重防效 E
    Actual efficiency
    理论鲜重防效 E0
    Theory efficiency
    EE0联合作用类型
    The joint effect
    0 0 0 0/0 0
    10 60.32 51.76/60.32 0
    20 72.75 67.65/72.75 0
    30 83.60 83.60 0
    100 0 11.38 11.38 0
    10 66.67 64.83 1.84 加成 Addition
    20 80.42 75.85 4.57 加成 Addition
    30 89.68 85.46 4.22 加成 Addition
    150 0 24.34 24.34 0
    10 71.43 69.98 1.45 加成 Addition
    20 84.43 79.38 4.74 加成 Addition
    30 92.59 87.59 5.00 加成 Addition
    200 0 34.13 34.13 0
    10 76.19 73.86 2.33 加成 Addition
    20 87.04 82.05 4.99 加成 Addition
    30 92.86 89.20 3.66 加成 Addition
    注:“—” 表示未评价。 Note: "— "means not evaluated. ingredients.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  异丙隆与噁草酮复配对节节麦和小麦的生物活性及选择性指数

    Table  5.   The Biological activities of isoproturon mixed with oxadiazon against wheat and Ae. tauschii, and their selectivity indexes between them

    试验药剂
    Herbicide
    供试植物
    Trial plants
    回归方程
    Regression equation
    相关系数
    r
    GR90 (95%CL)/
    (g/hm2)
    GR10 (95%CL)/
    (g/hm2)
    选择性指数
    Selectivity indexes
    异丙隆 + 噁草酮
    isoproturon + oxadiazon
    (4 : 1, m/m)
    节节麦
    Ae. tauschii
    y = 3.11 + 1.29x 0.9697 283.2 (180.4~444.3) 2.0
    小麦 (山农22)
    Triticum aestivum (Shannong 22)
    y = −4.91 + 3.13x 0.9655 576.7 (419.1~793.5)
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  异丙隆与噁草酮复配对冬小麦田杂草防除效果

    Table  6.   The control efficacy of isoproturon mixed with oxadiazon against weeds in winter wheat fields

    调查时间
    Sampling time/d
    药剂
    Herbicide
    有效剂量
    Dose, a.i/(g/hm2)
    防除效果
    Control efficacy/%
    雀麦
    B. japonicus
    节节麦
    Ae. tauschii
    播娘蒿
    D.sophia
    猪殃殃
    G. aparine
    总防效
    Total
    施药后 30 d 株防效
    Reduction in plant number at 30 d
    I + O (4 : 1) 600 82.1 ± 2.7 c 83.9 ± 1.9 c 87.8 ± 5.5 ab 87.5 ± 3.8 a 83.7 ± 1.3 c
    750 86.1 ± 2.2 b 88.5 ± 1.2 b 89.7 ± 2.5 ab 90.8 ± 1.0 a 87.8 ± 1.3 b
    900 90.8 ± 1.9 a 91.8 ± 1.5 a 93.2 ± 6.0 a 93.8 ± 4.4 a 91.7 ± 0.8 a
    I 900 68.9 ± 2.8 d 73.0 ± 1.6 d 81.1 ± 7.2 b 35.4 ± 10.5 b 68.3 ± 1.3 d
    O 150 82.1 ± 1.0 c 84.5 ± 1.1 c 86.5 ± 3.7 b 88.3 ± 6.0 a 84.0 ± 0.5 c
    施药后60 d 株防效
    Reduction in plant number at 60 d
    I + O (4 : 1) 600 84.9 ± 1.3 c 86.4 ± 1.6 c 89.0 ± 4.8 ab 88.5 ± 4.7 a 86.2 ± 1.2 c
    750 88.5 ± 1.3 b 90.7 ± 1.5 b 92.0 ± 1.2 ab 91.8 ± 2.1 a 90.1 ± 1.2 b
    900 93.8 ± 0.6 a 92.9 ± 0.9 a 94.0 ± 4.0 a 95.1 ± 3.5 a 93.0 ± 0.5 a
    I 900 72.5 ± 1.9 d 76.0 ± 1.0 d 83.0 ± 2.2 b 45.2 ± 9.0 b 73.3 ± 1.0 d
    O 150 85.3 ± 1.7 c 86.9 ± 0.9 c 88.7 ± 3.8 ab 90.3 ± 3.5 a 86.7 ± 0.5 c
    施药后60 d鲜重防效
    Reduction in fresh weight at 60 d
    I + O (4 : 1) 600 86.4 ± 1.1 c 87.4 ± 0.7 c 90.5 ± 5.5 ab 90.2 ± 4.0 a 88.2 ± 1.4 c
    750 89.8 ± 1.3 b 91.9 ± 0.4 b 93.1 ± 1.3 ab 93.0 ± 1.4 a 91.8 ± 0.3 b
    900 94.2 ± 0.9 a 94.5 ± 0.4 a 95.4 ± 3.1 a 95.2 ± 3.9 a 94.7 ± 1.0 a
    I 900 74.2 ± 2.9 d 77.3 ± 1.9 d 84.5 ± 4.1 b 46.3 ± 12.6 b 72.0 ± 1.7 d
    O 150 86.6 ± 1.6 c 88.3 ± 1.0 c 90.3 ± 4.2 ab 91.9 ± 3.6 a 88.8 ± 1.3 c
    注:I = 异丙隆;O = 噁草酮。同列中不同小写字母表示经Fisher’s protected LSD 检验在P < 0.05水平差异显著。
    Note: I = isoproturon; O = oxadiazon; d = days after treatments. Different letters at the same column indicate significant difference at the 0.05 level according to Fisher’s protected LSD test.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  异丙隆与噁草酮复配对冬小麦出苗及产量影响

    Table  7.   The effects of isoproturon mixed with oxadiazon on emergence number and yields of winter wheat

    药剂
    Herbicide
    有效剂量
    Dose, a.i/(g/hm2)
    出苗数/(株/m)
    Emergence number/(plant/m)
    小麦产量
    Wheat yields/(kg/hm2)
    增产率
    Yield growth rate/%
    I + O (4 : 1) 600 76.3 ± 6.0 a 7713 ± 114 c 13.6
    750 66.0 ± 4.0 a 8025 ± 60 b 18.2
    900 67.3 ± 8.7 a 8263 ± 69 a 21.7
    I 900 70.7 ± 7.4 a 7288 ± 59 d 7.4
    O 150 72.7 ± 2.9 a 7650 ± 54 c 12.7
    空白对照 CK 75.0 ± 7.0 a 6788 ± 43 e
    注:I = 异丙隆;O = 噁草酮。同列中不同小写字母表示经Fisher’s protectedLSD检验在P < 0.05水平差异显著。Note: I = isoproturon; O = oxadiazon; Different letters at the same column indicate significant difference at the 0.05 level according to Fisher’s protected LSD test.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-08-02
  • 录用日期:  2020-11-16
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