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韭菜灰霉病防治烟剂的筛选与评价

高皓杰 张兰云 李桐桐 赵时峰 李北兴 慕卫 刘峰

高皓杰, 张兰云, 李桐桐, 赵时峰, 李北兴, 慕卫, 刘峰. 韭菜灰霉病防治烟剂的筛选与评价[J]. 农药学学报, 2022, 24(2): 315-325. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0176
引用本文: 高皓杰, 张兰云, 李桐桐, 赵时峰, 李北兴, 慕卫, 刘峰. 韭菜灰霉病防治烟剂的筛选与评价[J]. 农药学学报, 2022, 24(2): 315-325. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0176
GAO Haojie, ZHANG Lanyun, LI Tongtong, ZHAO Shifeng, LI Beixing, MU Wei, LIU Feng. Screening and evaluation of smoke generators to control gray mold of Chinese chives[J]. Chinese Journal of Pesticide Science, 2022, 24(2): 315-325. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0176
Citation: GAO Haojie, ZHANG Lanyun, LI Tongtong, ZHAO Shifeng, LI Beixing, MU Wei, LIU Feng. Screening and evaluation of smoke generators to control gray mold of Chinese chives[J]. Chinese Journal of Pesticide Science, 2022, 24(2): 315-325. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0176

韭菜灰霉病防治烟剂的筛选与评价

doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0176
基金项目: 山东省蔬菜产业技术体系(SDAIT-05).
详细信息
    作者简介:

    高皓杰,loveyana1127@163.com

    通讯作者:

    刘峰,fliu@sdau.edu.cn.

  • 中图分类号: S482.2;TQ450.65

Screening and evaluation of smoke generators to control gray mold of Chinese chives

Funds: Modern Agricultural Industry Technology System for Vegetables in Shandong Province (SDAIT-05)
  • 摘要: 为筛选适合制备安全、高效防治韭菜上灰霉病烟剂的杀菌剂品种,从原药抑菌活性、烟雾毒力作用、成烟率、安全性和田间防效5个方面,对9种常用杀菌剂制备成韭菜灰霉病防治烟剂的可行性进行了评价。室内毒力测定结果表明:氟啶胺、咯菌腈和啶菌噁唑抑制韭菜灰霉病菌菌丝生长的EC50值分别为0.13、0.05和0.12 mg/L;吡唑萘菌胺、氟吡菌酰胺和啶酰菌胺抑制其孢子萌发的EC50值分别为0.84、0.68和1.16 mg/L。在0.108 m3 的密闭装置中,分别检测了0.01 g各杀菌剂有效成分受热成烟后烟雾的毒力,结果表明:咯菌腈烟雾可完全抑制韭菜灰霉病菌菌丝的生长,吡唑萘菌胺、氟吡菌酰胺和啶酰菌胺烟雾可完全抑制其孢子萌发,而腐霉利烟雾对菌丝生长和孢子萌发的抑制率仅分别为54.39%和43.27%。咯菌腈、啶酰菌胺和氟吡菌酰胺的成烟率分别为85.93%、91.35%和82.86%,基本满足烟剂的制备要求。经咯菌腈和啶酰菌胺烟雾处理后7 d,韭菜株高和茎粗的增加量与空白对照相比无显著差异。2019年和2020年的田间试验结果表明:有效成分120 g/hm2剂量的咯菌腈烟剂对韭菜灰霉病的治疗作用防效分别为72.31%和79.78%,375 g/hm2剂量啶酰菌胺烟剂对韭菜灰霉病的治疗作用防效分别为81.17%和83.81%,均高于已登记药剂腐霉利烟剂在最高登记剂量 (有效成分450 g/hm2)下对韭菜灰霉病的治疗作用防效 (59.86%和63.71%);上述剂量下,3种烟剂对韭菜灰霉病的田间保护作用防效均在90%以上。咯菌腈和啶酰菌胺烟剂在韭菜植株上沉积分布均匀,其消解动态曲线符合一级反应动力学方程,半衰期均为3~4 d。推荐可将咯菌腈和啶酰菌胺加工成烟剂并登记用于韭菜灰霉病的防治。
  • 图  1  烟雾毒力值测定装置

    Figure  1.  Apparatus for smoke toxicity test

    图  2  成烟率测定装置

    Figure  2.  Apparatus for smoking rate test

    图  3  杀菌剂烟雾对韭菜灰霉病菌菌丝生长和孢子萌发的抑制率

    Figure  3.  Inhibition rate of fungicide smokes against the mycelial growth and conidial germination of B. squamosa

    图  4  供试6种杀菌剂的成烟率

    Figure  4.  Smoking rates of 6 fungicides

    图  5  咯菌腈、啶酰菌胺和腐霉利烟剂对韭菜灰霉病的田间防治效果

    注:不同小写字母表示差异显著 (P<0.05)。

    Figure  5.  Field control efficacy of fludioxonil, boscalid and procymidone smoke generators against gray mold of Chinese chives

    Note: Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences (P<0.05).

    图  6  咯菌腈、啶酰菌胺和腐霉利烟剂在距施药点不同距离韭菜上的沉积分布 (A~E) 与残留消解动态(Ⅰ~Ⅲ)

    注:不同小写字母表示差异显著 (P<0.05)。

    Figure  6.  Distribution (A-E) and degradation dynamics curve (Ⅰ-Ⅲ) of fludioxonil, boscalid and procymidone smoke generators on Chinese chives at different distances from the application site

    Note: Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences (P<0.05).

    表  1  10种常用杀菌剂对韭菜灰霉病菌的EC50

    Table  1.   EC50 values of 10 common fungicides against B. squamosa

    杀菌剂
    Fungicides
    菌丝生长
    Mycelial growth
    孢子萌发
    Conidial germination
    毒力回归方程
    Toxicity regression equation
    (y=)
    EC50/(mg/L) 毒力回归方程
    Toxicity regression equation
    (y=)
    EC50/(mg/L)
    吡唑萘菌胺 isopyrazam 0.72x + 4.72 3.47 ± 0.05 0.73x + 5.05 0.84 ± 0.16
    嘧霉胺 pyrimethanil 0.39x + 4.54 15.01 ± 0.15 0.67x + 3.90 42.95 ± 3.58
    异菌脲 iprodione 0.47x + 4.51 11.32 ± 0.63 1.17x + 3.38 24.19 ± 2.51
    氟啶胺 fluazinam 0.62x + 5.55 0.13 ± 0.02 0.98x + 3.94 12.22 ± 2.14
    乙霉威 diethofencarb 0.59x + 4.85 10.81 ± 1.25 0.91x + 3.68 28.19 ± 2.94
    咯菌腈 fludioxonil 0.71x + 5.91 0.05 ± 0.02 1.18x + 3.50 18.68 ± 3.21
    啶菌噁唑 pyrisoxazole 0.65x + 5.56 0.12 ± 0.03 1.06x + 3.73 15.94 ± 1.54
    氟吡菌酰胺 fluopyram 0.87x + 4.38 5.18 ± 0.26 0.67x + 5.11 0.68 ± 0.11
    啶酰菌胺 boscalid 0.49x + 4.56 5.14 ± 2.01 0.68x + 4.95 1.16 ± 0.15
    腐霉利 procymidone 0.94x + 3.72 22.58 ± 3.26 1.15x + 2.91 66.52 ± 6.31
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同剂量咯菌腈和啶酰菌胺烟雾施药对韭菜植株生长的影响

    Table  2.   Effects of applying smokes of different doses of fludioxonil and boscalid on the growth of Chinese chives

    杀菌剂
    Fungicide
    剂量
    Dose/g
    株高
    Plant height/cm
    茎粗
    Stem diameter/mm
    药前
    Before the treatment
    药后 7 d 增量
    7 d increment after treatment
    药前
    Before the treatment
    药后 7 d 增量
    7 d increment after treatment
    咯菌腈 fludioxonil 0.01 22.00 ± 1.40 a 5.11 ± 0.17 a 3.50 ± 0.23 a 2.10 ± 0.02 a
    0.02 21.66 ± 1.06 a 5.15 ± 0.21 a 3.54 ± 0.15 a 2.13 ± 0.02 a
    0.04 22.23 ± 0.71 a 5.20 ± 0.14 a 3.52 ± 0.21 a 2.10 ± 0.02 a
    啶酰菌胺 boscalid 0.01 22.02 ± 0.99 a 5.12 ± 0.15 a 3.47 ± 0.19 a 2.05 ± 0.04 a
    0.02 21.79 ± 1.54 a 5.08 ± 0.61 a 3.47 ± 0.32 a 2.11 ± 0.03 a
    0.04 22.12 ± 0.56 a 5.10 ± 0.13 a 3.48 ± 0.26 a 2.12 ± 0.02 a
    对照 Control 21.84 ± 0.33 a 5.13 ± 0.17 a 3.50 ± 0.14 a 2.10 ± 0.04 a
    注:表中数据为平均值±标准差。同列数据后不同小写字母表示经 Duncan's 新复极差法检验在 0.05 水平上差异显著。Note: Date are mean ±SD. Different lowercase letters after the same column of data indicated significant differences at 0.05 level by Duncan's new multiple range test.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  两种施药方式下各杀菌剂对韭菜灰霉病的田间保护作用和治疗作用防治效果

    Table  3.   Protective and curative effects of fungicides applied in two methods on gray mold of Chinese chives in the field

    杀菌剂
    Fungicide
    剂量
    Dose, a.i./
    (g/hm2)
    保护作用
    Protective effect
    治疗作用
    Curative effect
    末次施药后 21 d
    21days after the last treatment
    药前病情指数
    Disease index
    before treatment
    末次施药后 7 d
    7days after the last treatment
    病情指数
    Disease index
    防治效果
    Control effect/%
    病情指数
    Disease index
    防治效果
    Control effect/%
    10% 咯菌腈烟剂
    fludioxonil 10% FU
    60 1.54 ± 0.17 e 85.38 ± 1.86 d 5.07 ± 0.27 a 13.37 ± 0.46 c 65.13 ± 1.08 de
    120 0.60 ± 0.16 gh 94.30 ± 1.38 ab 5.14 ± 0.18 a 7.87 ± 0.20 e 79.78 ± 0.65 b
    50% 咯菌腈可湿性粉剂
    fludioxonil 50% WP
    60 8.36 ± 0.17 b 20.70 ± 0.37 g 4.84 ± 0.30 a 15.81 ± 0.24 b 56.86 ± 0.11 f
    120 5.47 ± 0.10 c 48.10 ± 0.67 f 4.97 ± 0.33 a 9.45 ± 0.40 d 74.85 ± 0.93 c
    10% 啶酰菌胺烟剂
    boscalid 10% FU
    225 2.02 ± 0.23 d 80.79 ± 2.49 e 5.33 ± 0.25 a 13.10 ± 0.58 c 67.50 ± 1.46 d
    375 1.03 ± 0.18 fg 90.24 ± 1.85 bc 4.80 ± 0.27 a 5.88 ± 0.39 c 83.81 ± 1.02 a
    50% 啶酰菌胺水分散粒剂
    boscalid 50% WG
    225 1.24 ± 0.19 ef 88.29 ± 1.59 cd 4.87 ± 0.29 a 13.65 ± 0.40 c 62.93 ± 1.72 e
    375 0.53 ± 0.13 h 95.02 ± 1.11 a 5.28 ± 0.21 a 9.13 ± 0.45 d 77.15 ± 1.29 bc
    10% 腐霉利烟剂
    procymidone 10% FU
    450 0.53 ± 0.12 h 94.96 ± 1.24 a 5.04 ± 0.20 a 13.85 ± 0.23 c 63.71 ± 0.84 e
    对照 CK 10.55 ± 0.19 a 5.27 ± 0.21 a 39.87 ± 0.36 a
    注:表中数据为平均值±标准差。同列数据后不同小写字母表示经 Duncan's 新复极差法检验在 0.05 水平上差异显著。Note: Date are mean ±SD. Different lowercase letters after the same column of data indicated significant differences at 0.05 level by Duncan's new multiple range test.
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-08-24
  • 录用日期:  2021-11-12
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-12-24
  • 刊出日期:  2022-04-01

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