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Articles in press have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes /issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
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Assessment of boscalid residue and dietary intake risk in watercress
Shaobo LIAN, Xia WANG, Ying LYU, Jing JIN, Shu QIN
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2020.0027
[Abstract](516) [FullText HTML](320) [PDF 411KB](21)
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To evaluate the safety of boscalid in watercress, the samples were pretreated using QuEChERS method and quantitatively analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The final residues in watercress were detected, and a comparative analysis of long-term intake risk using two different diets was conducted. The results showed that the average recoveries of boscalid in watercress was 89%-100%, with the relative standard deviation (RSD) of 5%-12%. Under the GAP conditions, the final residue was between 0.16-37.1 mg/kg. National estimates daily intake (NEDI) of boscalid was 1.215 1 mg/(kg bw). Therefore, risk quotient (RQ) was 48.2%, which indicated that potential health risk caused by boscalid was not significant. If the individual dietary intake of each agricultural product provided by WHO was considered, the daily intake of boscalid was 0.083 0 mg/(kg bw), which lead to the RQ of 3.3%. Using comparative analysis, it is recommended to use diet data provided by WHO for long-term dietary risk assessment.
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2020, 22(2).  
[Abstract](174) [PDF 5253KB](186)
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2020, 22(2): 1-1.  
[Abstract](742) [FullText HTML](161) [PDF 21091KB](55)
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Effects of dose and distribution of pesticide droplets on pests control efficiency and its relationship with pesticide losses
Zhongyan GU, Dejin XU, Guangchun XU
2020, 22(2): 193-204.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2020.0065
[Abstract](351) [FullText HTML](223) [PDF 1047KB](60)
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In order to clarify the action mode of pesticide droplet in dose transfer, the interaction patter of pesticide dose, its distribution in the process of crop protection and pest control, and pesticide loss during the process were summarized. When the dose of pesticide was defined, pesticide droplets, which were the carrier of pesticide, landed on the surface of rice and formed the deposit. The pest would be killed after the lethal dose was obtained. The pest was very easy to contact with the pesticide dose when the droplets were succession and uniform distribution. If the pest obtained the lethal dose in the first time, the pest would die and other doses were wasted. If the lethal dose was not obtained at the first time, the pest would continue to harm the leaf until a lethal dose was obtained. When the loss point of the leaf was exceeded, the deposition amount would be reduced by approximately 50% and the dose would be lost. The more application rate was increased, the more dose would be lost. Compared to the situation where no pesticide was lost, more than twice of the pesticide dose was needed to ensure that the lethal dose was obtained. When the deposit on the leaf surface was discrete: ① If the deposit was appropriate size and contained a lethal dose, the pest would die after the contact with the deposit. However, if the number of the deposit was not enough, and the pests would continuous harm the leaf until the lethal dose was obtained. ② If the deposit was too small and did not contain a lethal dose, the pest would continue to harm the leaf until the lethal dose was obtained. ③ If the deposit was too large and contained a lethal dose, the pest could only contact a small portion of the deposit and could not obtain the lethal dose. The pest would continue to harm within the range of the deposit, or in the gaps between several deposits until the lethal dose was obtained. ④ If the deposit contained a dose beyond lethal requirement, the pest would die after the contact with the deposit. However, part of the excess dose was wasted. In a conclusion, plenty of pesticide deposits were necessary in order to kill pests and protect crops. The number, size and dosage of the deposit on a unit area constitute the pesticide deposition structure. Different deposition will result in different biological effect and it is relation to the pesticide utilization efficiency.
Progress on categories and synergistic mechanism of nanopesticides
Changjiao SUN, Yan WANG, Xiang ZHAO, Bo CUI, Liang ZHANG, Zhanghua ZENG, Haixin CUI
2020, 22(2): 205-213.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2020.0058
[Abstract](541) [FullText HTML](334) [PDF 679KB](80)
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The low usage efficiency of traditional pesticides formulations has caused a series of ecological environmental problems, so the development of efficient and safe pesticide formulations is significant for the sustainable development of agriculture. The rapid development of the nanotechnology industry opens new perspectives for modern crop protection strategies. Usage of nanomaterials and technology in the construction of nanopesticide delivery systems can effectively improve the utilization rates of pesticides, reduce the doses, and increase their efficiencies, which will ultimately reduce the pesticide residues and the environmental pollution. Recent research progress in the fields of formulations, synergistic mechanisms, potential problems and application prospects of nanopesticides were reviewed. Nanopesticides can significantly improve the dispersibility and stability of the active ingredients of pesticides, promote target deposition and dose transfer, and reduce loss and degradation, which will results in the reduction of the amount and frequency of usage. Research in the area of nanopesticides is still in its early developmental stage. Further research and improvement are still needed for the development of large-scale preparation, qualitative and quantitative detection methods and related evaluating regulations.
Preparation and characterization of prothioconazole-loaded fluorescent mesoporous silica nanoparticles
Chunli XU, BILAL Muhammad, Bo XU, Gangchao RAN, Pengyue ZHAO, Chong CAO, Fengmin LI, Lidong CAO, Qiliang HUANG
2020, 22(2): 214-224.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2020.0046
[Abstract](585) [FullText HTML](354) [PDF 1364KB](42)
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Recently, as a novel broad-spectrum fungicide, prothioconazole has attracted much attention. However, the use and registration of prothioconazole in China were restricted due to its metabolites which has great health risks to operators. Therefore, an effectively method to decrease its toxicity is the preparation of the slow release formulation. In this work, the slow release system of prothioconazole-loaded fluorescent mesoporous nanoparticles was prepared. The surface morphology and structure were characterized and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The release behavior of nanoparticles was evaluated by the dialysis bag method. The growth rate method was employed to study the virulence against Fusahum graminearum Sehw. The optical properties was investigated by fluorescence spectrometer and the transmission of the nanoparticles in fungi and wheat plant were characterized by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The results showed that the prepared pesticide-loaded nanoparticles (Pro@FL-MSN) exhibited regular appearance with the maximum drug loading of 27.14% and the average particle size was 139 nm. The results of the release study indicated that the release rate was consistent with the Ritger-Peppas equation. The fungicidal activity of Pro@FL-MSN was similar to that of prothioconazole technical. Moreover, CLSM results showed that the fluorescent silica nanoparticles could be absorbed and transfer into the mycelium and the roots of wheat plant.
Preparation and sustained-release performance of nitenpyram@MCM-41 mesoporous silica/HTCC nanoparticles
Jiakun ZHANG, Qiliang HUANG, Yan WU
2020, 22(2): 225-232.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2020.0047
[Abstract](483) [FullText HTML](212) [PDF 1043KB](32)
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MCM-41 mesoporous silica was dispersed in nitenpyram aqueous solution. With further sonication, nitenpyram was absorbed and entered into the pores of MCM-41 MSNs. The efficient positively charged polymer (a quaternized chitosan, (N-(2-hydroxyl) propyl-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride, HTCC) coating was realized by the electrostatic interaction and hydrogen bonding between the silicon-hydroxyl groups on the silica nanoparticles and the HTCC. For the shell of HTCC, nitenpyram was encapsulated inside the pores of MSNs. So that a slow and sustained release was realized. The structures, morphologies and Zeta potential, etc. of MCM-41 MSNs and nitenpyram@MCM-41/HTCC nanoparticles were systematically studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N2 adsorption-desorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction assay (XRD), dynamic light scattering particle size analysis(DLS) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The adsorption capacity and release property of nitenpyram@MCM-41/HTCC nanoparticles were also evaluated. The results showed that, HTCC, successfully wrapped on the surface of nitenpyram@MCM-41 nanoparticles, was served as the shell of nitenpyram@MCM-41/HTCC nanoparticles. The loading content was 2.8%, and the novel nitenpyram@MCM-41/HTCC nanoparticles have good sustained-release performance.
Effects of different thickeners on the stability of pesticide oil dispersion
Luoyun CHEN, Zhendong JIANG, Jiangyu LIU, Lufei ZHENG, Xuemin WU
2020, 22(2): 233-242.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2020.0054
[Abstract](234) [FullText HTML](153) [PDF 1575KB](25)
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In order to clarify the effect of different thickeners on the stability of oil suspension system with mineral oil as dispersion medium, 12.5% oxadiargyl + pyrazosulfuron-ethyl oil dispersion was used as the research object. The effects of three types of thickeners (including organic bentonite, organic polymer and gaseous silica) and organic bentonite used with other two types of thickeners on the physical stabilities of oil dispersions were studied by rheology and multiple light scattering methods. The results showed that the flow characteristic index (n) of all samples were less than 1, which was a pseudoplastic fluid with thixotropic properties. Except the combination of organic bentonite and organic polymer Atlox Rheostrux 100, the system was more in line with the Casson equation. While other samples were more in line with the Herschel-Bulkley equation. Organic bentonite has a relatively good performance to increase the stability of the system when used alone. Two kinds of organic polymer thickeners, including Atlox Rheostrux 100 and Atlox Rheostrux 200, had different performance. Atlox Rheostrux 100 had more significsant effect than that of Atlox Rheostrux 200, which might result from their different molecular structures. Two gaseous silica thickeners exhibited little effect, because they can’t form hydrogen bonds effectively. When organic bentonite used with other two types of thickeners, organic bentonite and organic polymer combination can improve the performance. Particularly, organic bentonite 869 and Atlox Rheostrux 100 combination was better than others, wich suspension system had high viscosity and good thixotropy, and excellent physical stability. However, organic bentonite 869 and hydrophobic silica R974 combination had no improvement. The results showed that both rheological and multiple light scattering can characterize the physical stability of the oil dispersion, and the novel orgainc polymer thickener and organic bentonite have synergistic effect, combination reasonable can greatly improve the stability of the oil dispersion.
Regularity and mechanism of lufenuron emulsion properties influenced by dilution ratio
Zilu LI, Chenhui ZHANG, Yuxia GAO, Yue MA, Yongfei GUO, Kefei ZHAO, Fengpei DU
2020, 22(2): 243-248.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2020.0059
[Abstract](476) [FullText HTML](301) [PDF 767KB](35)
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In the process of pesticide application, pesticide formulation needs to be diluted according to the different application methods and the liquid properties are influenced by the dilution ratio. In this work, lufenuron EC was selected as the object. The effects of dilution ratio on the mechanism of emulsion properties and the wetting ability were studied. The results demonstrated that with the increase of the dilution ratio, the particle size of the emulsion decreased gradually and the particle size distribution became better. Besides, the particle size of the emulsion decreased and the Brownian motion of particle enhanced, so the sedimentation rate fell down and the centrifugal stability improved gradually. However, because the concentration of adjuvant decreases, the surface tension of emulsion increased and the contact angle of droplets on the hydrophobic paraffin wax surface increased gradually and the wetting properties became worse. This research has provided basis for pesticide normative application based on different application methods, which guides the improvement of the utilizing efficiency of pesticide.
LSER model for predicting cuticle-water partition coefficients of pesticides
Xiaojuan QI, Xuehua LI, Yang HUANG, Zijun XIAO, Xiyun CAI, Jingwen CHEN
2020, 22(2): 249-255.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2020.0053
[Abstract](207) [FullText HTML](147) [PDF 786KB](27)
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Partition coefficients between plant cuticles and water (Kcw) are important for investigating penetration and residual of pesticides in plant. Experimental determination of Kcw values for diverse pesticides was unrealistic. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an effective model for the prediction of Kcw values. In this work, 64 logKcw values for 23 pesticides from previous literatures were collected, and a linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) model for the prediction of logKcw was developed. This model exhibits good goodness-of-fit (R2adj,tra = 0.79, RMSEtra = 0.38), robustness (Q2BOOT = 0.78) and external prediction performance (Q2ext = 0.81). The developed model is appropriate for various pesticides with functional groups such as -X (Cl, F, I), >N-C(O)-NH2, -OCH2COOH, -NH-, -NH2, >C=O, -O-C(O)-NH-, -CN, -S-, -S(O)(O)-. Mechanism analysis indicated that hydrophobic interactions (average relative contribution of 48%) and n/π-electron pairs interactions (average relative contribution of 9%) contributed to the increase of partition, while hydrogen bond accepting ability (average relative contribution of 26%) and polarizability (average relative contribution of 17%) had negative contribution to the partition of pesticides on plant cuticles. The pp-LFER model developed in this study can be used to predict logKcw values of new pesticides, and revealed the partition mechanisms of pesticides between plant cuticles and water.
Recent advances on pesticide spray adjuvants by bibliometric approach
Lina SUN, Huaijiang ZHANG, Ruihong SUN, Guisheng QIU, Wentao YAN, Qiang YUE
2020, 22(2): 256-264.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2020.0049
[Abstract](232) [FullText HTML](153) [PDF 1015KB](32)
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Recent advances on pesticide spray adjuvants from CNKI and Web of ScienceTM data bases were reviewed and analyzed by bibliometric approach. The authors, countries, institutions, journals, the numbers and citation of published articles about spray adjuvants were evaluated. 369 articles published in Chinese journals were found from CNKI. Among them, 272 articles were published on 100 journals in CNKI, and 85 of the 272 articles were published on core journals. 304 articles published on 117 journals and 62 proceeding papers by 1 369 authors from 42 countries, including USA, Brazil, Germany etc. were found from Web of ScienceTM. The research topics of this field have involve the selection of sprayer, and the function of spray adjuvants, including reducing droplet drift, improving the wetability, adhesion, uniformity of droplets on the targeted crop surface. Spray adjuvants have reduced the dosage of pesticides and improved the efficiency. The outlook of this research field in both China and abroad was also discussed.
Synthesis of a photoresponsive cationic surfactant PCDA-C6-NH3+ and its regulation of droplet evaporation
Hao ZHANG, Jun HU
2020, 22(2): 265-269.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2020.0048
[Abstract](347) [FullText HTML](214) [PDF 574KB](19)
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Droplets evaporation on plant leaves plays an important role in the utilization of pesticides. Although traditional surfactants can change the evaporation mode or evaporation rate of droplets, they cannot adjust the evaporation process effectively according to external stimuli. In this research, a photo-responsive diacetylene-based cationic surfactant (PCDA-C6-NH3+) was designed and synthesized, where 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid and protonated terminal amine were used as the photo-responsive motiey and the hydrophilic cation, respectively. The UV light-induced topochemical polymerization of PCDA-C6-NH3+ was studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Its surface activity and evaporation behavior before and after UV irradiation were analyzed by static surface tension and dynamic contact angle. The results showed that the aggregation state of PCDA-C6-NH3+ can be regulated by UV light during the droplets evaporation process, because of its topochemical polymerization. This work has provided a new strategy to adjust the evaporation of droplets, which is of great significance for improving the utilization rate of pesticides.
Synthesis of nonionic surfactants DL-α-tocopherol methoxypolyethylene glycol succinates and their applications in pesticide formulations
Huijie SHEN, Jiao LI, Yanhui WANG, Dou HONG, Junjie KOU, Chi ZHANG
2020, 22(2): 270-276.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2020.0057
[Abstract](326) [FullText HTML](220) [PDF 705KB](20)
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The nonionic surfactants DL-α-tocopherol methoxypolyethylene glycol succinates (TPGS-X-M, X represents the molecular weight of methoxypolyethylene glycols used and X is 750, 1000, 1500 or 1900) have been efficiently synthesized using DL-α-tocopherol as the hydrophobic end and polyethylene glycol(EO) as the hydrophilic end. Critical micelle concentrations (cmc), and the static and dynamic surface tensions of these four surfactants have been measured. These surfactants were used as dispersing agents in 20% etoxazole suspension formulation. The resulting dispersions were compared with the commercial dispersant FS3000 in various physical and chemical parameters. The static surface tensions of the surfactants indicated that the length of polyoxyethylene ether chain had little influence on the critical micelle concentrations of the surfactants. The results of dynamic surface tension tests showed that the surfactants TPGS-1000-M, TPGS-1500-M and TPGS-1900-M had a greater downward trend than that of FS3000 at 1 249.3 ms, which exhibited some advantages. The surfactants TPGS-1500-M and TPGS-1900-M were used as dispersing agents in 20% etoxazole suspension formulation for the test of their particle sizes, suspension rates, active ingredient contents, suspensibilities, thermal storage stabilities and low temperature stabilities. The results revealed that the suspension effects of new surfactants TPGS-1500-M and TPGS-1900-M were similar to that of FS3000 suspending agent. Therefore, surfactants TPGS-1500-M and TPGS-1900-M could be used as dispersing agents for suspension formulations.
Method for calculation of pesticide deposition rate using spraying machinery in the orchard
Pengjiu ZHANG, Yue GAO, Zhongfang LIU, Jinyu ZHAO, Jing YANG, Jianbin FAN, Renjun FAN
2020, 22(2): 277-284.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2020.0056
[Abstract](242) [FullText HTML](165) [PDF 528KB](30)
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A new method was developed to measure the pesticide deposition rate on fruit trees using canopy characteristics of fruit trees and leaf deposition. This new method has provided a general calculation method for the pesticide deposition rate in orchards with different planting patterns, which could solve the imprecise problem of traditional measuring methods for actual utilization rate of pesticides in orchards. The ground loss rate of an orchard atomizing sprayer in an orchard with sparse cultivation of vigorous stock was calculated. To prove the applicability of this new method, the value of the ground loss rate was compared with the pesticide deposition rate calculated by the method developed in this work. And this method was also verified by calculating the pesticide deposition rate in an orchard with low anvil dense planting and the pesticide deposition rate of the traditional stretcher plunger pump sprayer and the emerging plant protection UAV. The evaluation results of the ground loss rate was basically consistent with that of the pesticide deposition rate proposed by this paper. Those two methods both can be used for the evaluation of the pesticide utilization efficiency of a plant protection equipment. Of note, the method developed in this study is more comprehensive in terms of influencing factors about the pesticide utilization efficiency of a plant protection equipment. The influences of leaf deposition and canopy structure of trees were also considered. Moreover, this method is more suitable for orchards with different planting patterns. The pesticide deposition rate was calculated by using canopy characteristics of fruit trees and leaf deposition, which could reflect the actual utilization efficiencies of pesticides in orchard. Meanwhile, the canopy structure of orchard was quantified into "leaf area index", "canopy shadow area" and other indicators, which could be used to select suitable plant protection equipments for orchards with different planting patterns. Moreover, the outer drift of pesticides could also be calculated by using the measurement of ground loss rate, which could be used to optimize the plant protection equipment and achieve accurate spraying by adjusting spray angle, droplet size, spraying flow and other parameters.
Study on the synergistic effect of organosilicon adjuvant on chlorantraniliprole in the control of rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenée
Guangchun XU, Dejin XU, Lu XU, Congbo WANG, Aocheng CAO, Zhongyan GU
2020, 22(2): 285-292.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2020.0060
[Abstract](376) [FullText HTML](248) [PDF 972KB](41)
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In this study, the effect of the trisiloxane surfactant (Silwet408) on the physicochemical properties of pesticide solutions, and the internal relation between the behavior of single droplets of Silwet408 solution on rice leaf surface and the control effect on rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenée were explored. The change of surface tension, viscosity, pH value and maximum retention of chlorantraniliprole 200 g/L suspension concentrate(SC) diluent solution were determined. The leaf surface was characterized by OCG method. And the adhesion behavior analysis of single droplets on rice leaves was conducted according to leaf inclination angle. Field efficacy tests were also carried out. The results showed that the apparent surface free energy (SFE) values of the adaxial and abaxial rice leaf surface were 31.48 mJ/m2 and 34.19 mJ/m2, respectively. The leaf angles of the second and third leaves were relatively small and their respective average values were (11.09 ± 2.74)° and (19.98 ± 5.67)°, respectively, which indicated that the leaf shape of high inclination angle was not conducive to the adhesion of droplets on the rice leaves. The surface tensions of chlorantraniliprole 200 g/L SC 4 000 times and 5 000 times diluent solution were (44.64 ± 1.04) mN/m and (46.14 ± 0.62) mN/m, respectively, which were higher than that of the rice leaf apparent surface free energy. Their single droplets of those solutions rolled off rice leaves with the inclination angles of 79° and 70°, respectively. After the addition of Silwet408 adjuvant at the concentration of 125 mg/L, the surface tension of the solution was lower than that of therice leaf apparent surface free energy. Its single droplet of the solution adhered to rice leaf with inclination angles and the leaf became wetted. The maximum retention amount of the solution on the rice leaf was also significantly increased. The pH and viscosity values of chlorantraniliprole 200 g/L SC diluent solution had a little change with or without Silwet408 adjuvant. Field experiments showed that the protecting effect of leaves and the insecticidal effect of chlorantraniliprole 200 g/L SC 5 000 times diluent solution on C. medinalis were significantly improved 14 days after spray by adding Silwet408 adjuvant at the concentration of 125 mg/L. In a word, physicochemical properties of the spray solution could match with the characteristics of the rice leaf after adding Silwet408 adjuvant at the concentration of 125 mg/L, which could improve the control effect of chlorantraniliprole 200 g/L SC 5 000 times diluent solution against rice leaffolder.
Synergistic effect of different adjuvants on azoxystrobin against three plant diseases
Bin WANG, Naiguo SI, Jing GUO, Lu YU, Jie ZHAO
2020, 22(2): 293-298.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2020.0061
[Abstract](309) [FullText HTML](221) [PDF 883KB](43)
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In this study, the synergistic effect of five adjuvants on azoxystrobin was investigated. The surface tension, the critical micelle concentration (cmc) and the maximum retention (Rm) were determined. The control efficacy of azoxystrobin and adjvants were compared by pot experiment. The results showed that the five adjuvants could efficiently reduce the surface tension, and increase Rm value on plant leaves. Rm value of Silwet408 was 7.32 mg/cm2 on corn leaves. Rm value of Beidatong was 11.16 mg/cm2 on wheat leaves. The five adjuvants could dramatically increase the control efficacy of azoxystrobin against wheat powdery mildew, soybean rust and corn rust. In terms of corn rust, the synergistic effect of Maidao (EC50 value 0.016 mg/L) was the best one, followed by Beidatong (EC50 value 0.029 mg/L). With regard to wheat powdery mildew, the synergistic effect of NF-100 (EC50 0.009 mg/L) and Silwet408 (EC50 0.009 mg/L) were both good. As for soybean rust, the synergistic effect of Maidao (EC50 value 0.006 mg/L) and Silwet408 (EC50 value 0.007 mg/L) were good. All in all, Silwet408 and Maidao have good synergistic effect with azoxystrobinto three plant diseases.
Research on regulating pesticide-to-target delivery performance with polymer adjuvant G-100A
Guizhen HUANG, Bocong CHEN, Lichao YANG, Bixi ZHENG, Lei ZHANG
2020, 22(2): 299-305.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2020.0063
[Abstract](192) [FullText HTML](135) [PDF 834KB](24)
Abstract:
With the development of unified prevention and control technology, the use of multiple pesticide formulations combined with spraying adjuvants has become one of the main application methods. However, it has also brought about the stability problem of tank mixing between formulation products or formulation/spray adjuvants of different enterprises. In this paper, three functional adjuvants including polyacrylic ester-based micro-crosslinking macromolecule polymer G-100A, fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether macromolecule polymer, andtristyrylphenol polyoxyethylene ether phosphate were used to prepare 40% difenoconazole + pyraclostrobin emulsion in water (EW). The field control efficacy on rice sheath blight was carried out. The results showed that the adhesion and deposition of the liquid of the as-prepared formulation on the target were significantly improved under the recommended concentration, and it also had good anti-evaporation performance. In terms of the prevention and control of rice sheath blight in the field, even if the dosage was reduced by 25%, the control efficiency was still the same as the control agent (40% difenoconazole +pyraclostrobin SC). In addition, G-100A can also be used as a spray adjuvant. It exists in the liquid with a unique structure, which can effectively inhibit water evaporation and droplets drift. Moreover, it can also reduce the interface energy when the droplet impacts the surface of target leaf, preventing the droplet bouncing. In summary, G-100A is expected to be applied in more formulation systems, which contributes to the reduction of pesticide application in the future.
Simulation study on the influence of pesticide liquid properties on droplet motion in space
Junyi ZHAO, Shidong XUE, Xiaomo SONG, Zhong LAN, Tingting HAO, Xuehu MA
2020, 22(2): 306-314.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2020.0055
[Abstract](242) [FullText HTML](158) [PDF 2157KB](37)
Abstract:
Studying the spatial operation law of pesticide droplets and its influencing factors are of great significance for drift-off, environmental protection and additive development. 2% emamectin benzoate emulsifiable concentrate was selected. The Euler-Lagrange discrete phase model was used to simulate droplet motion in space, and the spatial trajectory of the pesticide droplets was analyzed. The result showed that the atomization process at the outlet of the nozzle was mainly affect by the viscosity and the surface tension of the droplets. The trajectory and drift ratio of the subsequent droplet space operation was determined by the result of the atomization process. With the increase of viscosity and surface tension, the proportion of large particle droplets at the outlet and the average particle size of the droplets increased. While residence time and drift ratio decreased during space operation. Then, the appropriate regulation range of viscosity and surface tension was determined. By increasing the viscosity and surface tension to 0.001-0.01 Pa·s and 0.042-0.060 N/m, respectively, the drift rate became 18.87%-12.67% and 38.93%-24.40%, respectively. According to the actual scene, a specific scheme for regulating the physical properties of the pesticide droplets was proposed. By increasing the viscosity and surface tension of 2% emamectin benzoate emulsifiable concentrate to 0.01 Pa·s and 0.060 N/m, respectively, the drift rate under wind conditions of 4 m/s and 5 m/s can be reduced by 18% and 43%, respectively, which has effectively reduced the drift ratio.
Effects of nozzle types, adjuvants and environmental conditions on spray drift potential of unmanned aerial vehicles in a wind tunnel
Aijun ZENG, Changling WANG, Jianli SONG, Zhichong WANG, Mingyi HUANG, Xiongkui HE, Andreas HERBST
2020, 22(2): 315-323.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2020.0067
[Abstract](272) [FullText HTML](155) [PDF 872KB](39)
Abstract:
In order to investigate and reduce spray drift during the use of plant protection unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), a spray unit consisting of a single rotor and a nozzle was simulated under the controlled wind tunnel conditions (wind speed 5 m/s, spray pressure 0.3 MPa and rotor speed 2 300 r/min). The effects of 11 kinds of nozzles and 4 different adjuvants on droplet drift were investigated. The drift potential index (DIX) and drift potential reduction percentage (DPRP) were also evaluated and compared. The results show that under the condition of 20℃/RH 80%, the drift distribution of different nozzle types in vertical plane and horizontal distance showed a regular change trend. Compared with the reference nozzle F110-03, the order of the drift potential of nozzles from large to small was TR80-0067 > ST110-0067 > XR110-01 > ST110-015 > TR80-01 > ST110-02 > XR110-03 > F110-03 > IDK series. The effect of IDK120-01and IDK120-015 was similar and they were the best ones. Under the wind tunnel condition of 30℃/RH 40% and wind speed of 5 m/s, compared to the control group without adjuvants, the mean drift reduction rates of spray nozzle XR 110-01 with adjuvant of 0.5% Silwet DRS-60, 1.0% "Maifei" (MF) and 1.0% Y-20079 were 43.3%, 15.6% and 5.2%, respectively. The selection of drift reducing adjuvants needs to consider the type of adjuvants and their effects. At the wind tunnel conditions of 20℃/RH 40%, 20℃/RH 80%, 30℃/RH 40% and 30℃/RH 60%, the spray nozzle XR110-01 added with 1.0% MF adjuvant was beneficial to the reduction of airborn drift. Especially, under high temperature and low humidity conditions, it had better drift reduction effect. This study has provided reference and guidance for nozzles selection, adjuvants selection and the field application of UAV for plant protection, and also data basis for the further study of the drift reduction technology of nozzle and adjuvants.
Effects of spray parameters on pesticide utilization efficiency and droplet deposition distribution in paddy field of self-propelled boom sprayer
Dejin XU, Guangchun XU, Lu XU, Congbo WANG, Shuangnü HU, Zhongyan GU, Baijing QIU
2020, 22(2): 324-332.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2020.0045
[Abstract](371) [FullText HTML](240) [PDF 558KB](28)
Abstract:
A theoretical basis for the establishment of a high-efficiency pesticide application technology using self-propelled boom sprayer has been established. The diversities of pesticide utilization efficiency, deposition distribution uniformity, and droplet density on rice stem base during tillering stage, booting stage, and flowering stage were studied, respectively, when the self-propelled boom sprayer was applied with different spray pressure and spray volume. Ponceau G, a biological dye, was employed as the pesticide tracer to estimate the utilization ratio of pesticide under different spray parameters. The depositon uniformity was estimated with the value of coefficient of variation and absolute proportion. Water sensitive paper was used to collect the droplets on the rice stem base. And the data were used for analyzing the ability of pesticide droplets to permeate the rich canopy under different spray parameters. During the tillering stage, the average deposition rate of Ponceau G at each sampling site was only 0.11 mg under the spray pressure and spray volume of the self-propelled boom sprayer, which had been preset as 1.2 MPa and 375 L/hm2, respectively. The result was 56.00% lower than that with the spray pressure and spray volume of 0.4 MPa and 300 L/hm2. In terms of booting stage, the average deposition rate of Ponceau G at each sampling site is 0.26 mg under the spray pressure and spray volume of 1.2 MPa and 375 L/hm2, which was significantly higher than those of the other four tested treatments. However, for the flowering stage, a smaller influence of the diversity of spray parameters on the deposition rate was observed. When appropriate spray pressure and spray volume were used, the maximum pesticide utilization efficiency achieved by the self-propelled boom sprayer during the tillering stage, booting stage, and flowering stage were 40.57%, 54.97% and 55.50%, respectively. Nonetheless, spray parameters had significant influence on the pesticide utilization efficiency during the tillering stage, which indicated the minimum utilization efficiency of 17.56%. Based on the coefficient of variation and absolute proportion, better pesticide distribution could be achieved when the spray pressure and spray volume of the self-propelled boom sprayer were preset to 0.8 MPa and 300 L/hm2. The spray pressure had a significant influence on the droplet density on rice stem base. In the middle and late growth stages of rice, the droplet density on rice stem base was lower than 30 droplet/cm2. The results demonstrated that the spray pressure and spray volume were two crucial influential factors for the pesticide utilization efficiency, spray deposition uniformity, and droplet density on rice stem base when self-propelled boom sprayer was used for rice-field operation. Overall, for the early growth stage, high-pressure, large-volume spraying was not appropriate. And in the middle and late growth stages, higher-pressured spraying may be necessary for a particular area to improve the control efficacy of plant diseases and insect pests of the rice stem base.
Synergism of spray parameters of plant protection unmanned aerial vehicle and adjuvant types to insecticides against Aphis gossypii
Weiwei BAI, Xiao CHEN, Ruifeng DING, Guangkuo LI, Yan GONG, Xinzheng WEI
2020, 22(2): 333-339.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2020.0050
[Abstract](765) [FullText HTML](514) [PDF 424KB](41)
Abstract:
In this work, the effect of plant protection unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) spray parameters on the control of Aphis gossypii and the synergistic effects of spray adjuvants on two insecticides were evaluated. The effects of flight height, flight velocity and type of nozzles on the control of A. gossypii was analyzed by field experiments. In addition, the synergistic effects of 5 spray adjuvants (ND-600, ND-800, G2801, BEIDATONG and N380) for two insecticides(22% solfoxaflor SC and 21% thiamethoxam SC) were determined by field trials. The results indicated that spray parameters could significantly affect the control of A. gossypii. 2 m was the best flight height. The optimum parameters combinations were as follows: flight height of 2 m, flight velocity of 3 m/s and nozzle type of IDK120-01. The results also showed that, after the addition of adjuvants, the field control effects of 22% solfoxaflor SC and 21% thiamethoxam SC were improved in different degrees. Except ND-600, 7 days after the application, other adjuvants, including ND-800, G-2801, N380, Beidatong, have synergistic effects on 22% solfoxaflor SC and ND-800. 21% thiamethoxam SC had a good control efficiency for A. gossypii. Control efficiencies were all more than 90% after the usage of adjuvants, ND-600, ND-800, BEIDATONG, G2801 and N380 could all significantly increase the control efficiency of 21% thiamethoxam SC.
Effect of different spray factors on weed control in wheat field by unmanned aerial vehicle
Xingxiang GAO, Mei LI, Jian LI, Feng FANG
2020, 22(2): 340-346.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2020.0041
[Abstract](256) [FullText HTML](182) [PDF 421KB](26)
Abstract:
In order to clarify the effects of different spray factors, such as spray volume, droplets size and spray adjuvants, on Jifei P20 UAV for thecontrol of weeds in wheat fields, the experimentswerecarried out using mesosulfuron-methyl 30 g/L SC +paradigm arylex 20% WDG as a model herbicide in 2019. The results of deposition experiment showed that the worst deposition (0.67 μg/cm2) was observed by the treatment of low spray volume (11.25 L/hm2) and the corresponding deposition rate was only 22.37%. The treatment of large droplet size with 1.07 μg/cm2 deposition and the deposition rate 35.62% was slightly lower than that of other treatments using UAV (deposition was 1.16-1.52 μg/cm2 and the deposition rate 38.73%-50.83%), but significantly lower than conventional spray with deposition rate 67.00%. The results of weed control experiment showed that the optimum spray volume was 15.0-22.5 L/hm2. And the total fresh weights of weeds were 74.8%, 85.9% and 88.2% by using the spray volumes of 11.25, 15.0 and 22.5 L/hm2, respectively.The optimum sprinkler head was the medium-size one. The total weed control efficiencies using small, medium and large droplet sizes were74.8%, 85.9% and 88.2%, respectively. The optimum spray adjuvants were EDDF and Maifei, and their control effects on the total fresh weights of weeds were 88.9% and 87.4%, respectively. The deposition using the conventional spray was 2.01 μg/cm2, and the fresh weight effect was 87.6%. The Jifei P20 UAV has the advantage of time- and water-saving under suitable spray factors. Although the droplet deposition was lower than that of conventional spray, but the weed control effect was not much different from that of conventional spray. .
Effect of spray parameters and adjuvant type on droplet deposition deposition of plant protection unmanned aerial vehicle in mid-growth-cotton field
Xiao CHEN, Dejiang LIU, Guo WANG, Xiao ZHANG, Xinyu LU, Yan GONG
2020, 22(2): 347-352.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2020.0051
[Abstract](228) [FullText HTML](179) [PDF 465KB](30)
Abstract:
The DJI MG1-P electric four-rotor plant protection unmanned aerial vehicle was used for spraying in the mid-growth-cotton. And the effects of spray parameters and adjuvant type on the deposition and distribution of pesticide mist droplets on cotton plant leaves were discussed. 22% flonicamidonitrile SC and three kinds of spray adjuvants (Beidatong, ND-800, G-2801) were used as test agents, which were sprayed under different spray parameters and different aerial spray adjuvants. As a tracer of pesticide deposition, allura red was employed to detect the distribution of droplet deposition using water sensitive paper and filter paper. The absorbance value of the filter paper elution solution was measured by a spectrophotometer. The absorbance value of the filter paper elution solution is measured by a spectrophotometer in order to calculate the amount of drug solution deposited per unit area, and the droplet density was analyzed by DepositScan software. The test results showed that the flight speed of unmanned aerial vehicle had the greatest influence on the droplet deposition distribution, and the flight height had no significant effect on the experiments using the middle of cotton growth. The adjuvant had a significant effect on the spray deposition distribution. After adding the spray adjuvants, the droplet densities on the upper, middle and lower parts of the cotton canopy were all significantly improved. After adding ND-800 adjuvant, the droplet density on the back of the upper, middle and lower leaves of the cotton canopy increased by 688.9%, 590.9% and 327.5%, respectively. However, the addition of G-2801 and Bidatong adjuvant had no significant effect on the droplet density on the back of cotton leaves.
Deposition and distribution of six insecticides in greenhouse cucumber canopies and the impact on the control efficacy to Aphis gossypii
Dengke HUA, Xiaobin ZHENG, Youjun ZHANG, Qingjun WU
2020, 22(2): 353-361.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2020.0062
[Abstract](290) [FullText HTML](194) [PDF 604KB](31)
Abstract:
In this work, the droplet deposition and distribution of different insecticides in cucumber canopies and the impact on the control efficacy against Aphis gossypii were investigated. The droplet coverage of six insecticides was determined by DepositScan software. The insecticide droplets were collected by the relevant collection devices and spray droplet test cards. Meanwhile, the insecticide deposition was determined by the Allura red tracer. Then the relationship between the droplet deposition distribution in the cucumber canopy and the control efficiency against A. gossypii was illustrated. The results showed that the droplet deposition and coverage of abamectin, spirotetramat, pyriproxyfen, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid and acetamiprid on cucumber plants had no significant difference. The droplet deposition and coverage of the six insecticides was manifested with the distribution trend of top > middle > bottom. On the 1st and 3rd day after spraying, the corrected control efficacy of the six insecticides against A. gossypii on the same canopy position or the same insecticide to A. gossypii on different canopy positions were all above 65% and no significant different was detected among treatments. The droplets from knapsack manual sprayer mainly deposited on the top canopy of the cucumber. The droplet deposition on the top canopy accounted for above 1/3 of the total deposition amount, while the deposition was relatively lower on the middle and bottom canopies. However, the insecticide deposited in the middle and bottom canopies could still provide good control efficacy against A. gossypii when applied with the recommended dosage in the field. The results have provided a scientific basis for the rational control of A. gossypii.
Research of probenazole and sedaxane combined granule and the control efficacy on rice blast and sheath blight at seedling stage
Guozhen WANG, Xueming LI, Ruiqi HAN, Xingkai CHENG, Yanjun XU, Zhongqiao HUANG, Bo XU, Pengfei LIU, Xili LIU
2020, 22(2): 362-369.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2020.0064
[Abstract](233) [FullText HTML](152) [PDF 512KB](27)
Abstract:
The occurrence and control of rice seedling diseases has been well concerned. In order to clarify the safety and control efficacy of the combination of plant immune inducer probenazole and fungicide sedaxane on rice during the seedling stage, 16% probenazole + sedaxane granule formulation was prepared and the physical indexes of the formulation were measured. Two active ingredients contents in the formulation and the cumulative release rates were detected by HPLC. The safety of probenazole to rice seedlings and the control effect of the combined granules on rice blast and sheath blight were measured. The results showed that the quality of the prepared granules met the national standard requirements. The release dynamic curves of the active ingredient in a 30% (V/V) methanol solution showed that the cumulative release rate of sedaxane was 33% (m/m) after 4 h and then changed very slightly, while 7 d was needed for probenazole to achieve its highest peak cumulative release rate. It indicated that the combined granule might provide a combination of quick-acting and sustained-effect for disease control during the rice seedling stage. The results of safety tests showed that 16% probenazole granule was safe for the growth of rice seedling using the dose of 150 g/m2. A stable resistance of rice seedlings to rice blast and sheath blight was induced by probenazole at the test dosage under the artificial inoculation conditions. The 16% probenazole + sedaxane granule, at the dose of 150 g/m2, exhibited excellent activity for the control of rice blast and rice sheath blight, with the control efficacy of 64.79% and 68.32% respectively. This work has provided a good example for the development of premixtures with plant immune inducers and fungicides, which has also offered a reference for reasonably granules application in field.
Effect of oil adjuvant and starch adjuvant on residues of buprofezin and nitenpyram in rice
Yan SHEN, Hong ZHU, Xiangyang YU, Xianjin LIU, Zhiyong ZHANG
2020, 22(2): 370-377.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2020.0066
[Abstract](104) [FullText HTML](76) [PDF 605KB](17)
Abstract:
In order to investigate the effects of oil adjuvant and starch adjuvant, the residues of buprofezin and nitenpyram were studied using rice as the model plant. A QuEChERS-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed to determine their dynamic contents in different parts of rice. Results showed that the recoveries of buprofezin in spike, plant, grain and hull of rice were in the range of 89%-100%, the relative standard deviation (RSD) ranged from 2.5%-7.2% and the quantitative limit (LOQ) ranged from 0.01 to 0.02 mg/kg. The recoveries of nitenpyram in spike, plant, grain and hull of rice were in the range of 88%-99%, the RSD ranged from 2.5%-13% and the quantitative limit (LOQ) ranged from 0.01 to 0.02 mg/kg. The degradation of buprofezin and nitenpyram in different parts of rice was fitted to a first-order reaction kinetic model. In terms of no addition of adjuvant, starch adjuvant, oil adjuvant treatments, the order of the initial deposit residues of buprofezin in spikes of rice were oil adjuvant > starch adjuvant > no adjuvant addition group and that in the half-life were oil adjuvant > starch adjuvant > no adjuvant addition group. In the harvest time of rice, the terminal residues of buprofezin and nitenpyram in grain and hull were undetected. The residue of buprofezin in plant was in the range of < 0.02-0.05 mg/kg and that of nitenpyram was in the range of < 0.02-0.05 mg/kg. The results of field tests of 70% buprofezin + nitenpyram WG against Laodelphax striatellus showed that the control effect of pesticides added with starch adjuvant or oil adjuvant were significantly higher than that with no adjuvant addition 14 days after treatments. The results showed that the adjuvant treatments could extend residue time of the active ingredient of pesticide in rice, which would benefit the lasting of the effect of pesticide. Meanwhile, the terminal residue was low. The effect of oil adjuvant was better than that of the starch adjuvant.
Deposition distribution and dissipation dynamics of 10% diethofencarb + procymidone micropowder in facility cucumber
Xuewen XIE, Hongyun CHUAI, Lei LI, Ali CHAI, Yanxia SHI, Baoju LI
2020, 22(2): 378-387.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2020.0068
[Abstract](130) [FullText HTML](99) [PDF 805KB](22)
Abstract:
The deposition distribution characteristics and the dynamics of residual dissipation of 10% diethofencarb + procymidone micropowder (5% diethofencarb, 5% procymidone) was investigated on facility cucumbers. The PC-3A(S) laser dust meter and dust sample piece were used to study the distribution of deposition when the different types of facilities, different temperature and humidity, and different application angles of 10% diethofencarb + procymidone micropowder were applied on the facilities cucumber. The residue dissipation dynamic tests were conducted on facilities cucumber leaves and fruits from 2017 to 2018 in Beijing. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the deposition distribution characteristics of 10% diethofencarb + procymidone micropowder when different facilities or different temperature conditions were applied. The deposition rate of active ingredients was not influenced by temperature. However, under different humidity conditions, the deposition amount of the micronizer on cucumber leaves was different. Their half-lives in leaves and fruits were 3.2 d and 3.0-3.2 d, respectively. And half-lives in fruits were 4.0-4.3 d and 3.1-3.8 d, respectively. 10% diethofencarb + procymidone micropowder was applied to cucumber at the fruit stage at the dosage of 100 g/hm2 and 150 g/hm2 (1.5 times), and the maximum application time was 3 times. The sampling time was 7, 10 and 14 days from the last application. The maximum residue of diethofencarb in cucumber fruit was 0.88 mg/kg, which was lower than the MRL (5 mg/kg) stipulated by Chinese national standard. The maximum residue of procymidone in cucumber fruit is 0.49 mg/kg, which is lower than the MRL (2 mg/kg) in China. This study will contribute to the safe use of 10% diethofencarb + procymidone micropowder in cucumber.
Research advances and application prospects of microencapsulation techniques in pesticide
LI Beixing, ZHANG Daxia, ZHANG Canguang, GUAN Lei, WANG Kai, LIU Feng
2014, 16(5): 483-496.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-7303.2014.05.01
[Abstract](1590) [PDF 1350KB](957)
Research progresses on the metabolic mechanisms of organophosphate insecticides
Wang Zhichao, Kang Zhijiao, Shi Xueyan, Gao Xiwu
2015, 17(1): 1-14.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-7303.2015.01.01
[Abstract](1669) [PDF 1725KB](782)
Research progress and prospects of microbial pesticide formulation for plant disease control
LIU Zhenhua, LUO Yuanchan, ZHANG Daojing, LI Yuanguang
2014, 16(5): 497-507.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-7303.2014.05.02
[Abstract](1458) [PDF 1298KB](719)
Progress on the development and application of biopesticide Shenqinmycin
FANG Yunling, SUN Shuang, SHEN Yue, HE Yawen
2014, 16(4): 387-393.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-7303.2014.04.03
[Abstract](1343) [PDF 2341KB](412)
Acute toxicity and first tier risk assessment of four neonicotinoid insecticides to honeybees
Wu Chi, Jiang Hui, Wang Changbin, Zhang Yan, Chen Ang, Cui Xinyue, He Mingyuan
2015, 17(4): 486-491.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-7303.2015.04.16
[Abstract](1600) [PDF 1047KB](496)
Dissipation, residues and dietary risk assessment of dinotefuran in rice
SUN Mingna, DONG Xu, WANG Mei, XIAO Qingqing, LIU Yanping, SUN Haibin, DUAN Jinsheng, GAO Tongchun
2016, 18(1): 86-92.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2016.0010
[Abstract](1363) [PDF 1462KB](374)
Preliminary studies on synergism and mechanisms of six organosilicon additives on fomesafen
Zhang Zhongliang, Li Xiangquan, Wang Huan, Liu Yingchun, Tao Bo
2015, 17(1): 115-118.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-7303.2015.01.17
[Abstract](977) [PDF 969KB](456)
Synergism of six spray adjuvants on mesotrione in controlling Echinochloa crus-galli and Amaranthus retroflexus
Zhang Jing, Lü Heping, Cao Lidong, Liu Yajing, Zhao Peng, Li Fengmin, Huang Qiliang
2015, 17(3): 348-356.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-7303.2015.03.15
[Abstract](871) [PDF 1436KB](376)
Risk assessment for combined exposure of multi- residue of pesticides
Yang Guiling, Chen Chen, Wang Qiang, Zhao Huiyu, Zhang Zhiheng, Cai Zheng, Qian Yongzhong
2015, 17(2): 119-127.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-7303.2015.02.01
[Abstract](1684) [PDF 1215KB](687)
Residues of 21 fungicides in Fragaria ananassa by modified QuEChERS and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
HOU Xue, HAN Mei, QIU Shiting, HU Li, LEI Shaorong
2017, 19(1): 46-52.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2017.0007
[Abstract](1057) [PDF 2435KB](242)

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Journal Introduction

Editor-in-Chief:ZHOU Zhiqiang

Deputy Editor-in-Chief:PAN Canping

Address:College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China

Postal Code:100193

Tel:86-010-62733003

E-mail:nyxuebao@263.net

ISSN:1008-7303

CN:11-3995/S

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