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Dual-targeted natural product inhibitors of Ostrinia furnacalis chitinases and inhibitory mechanisms
HE Danchan, JIANG Xi, YANG Qing
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0044
[Abstract](4) [FullText HTML](0) [PDF 1989KB](1)
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Multiple chitinases are required for effective hydrolysis of insect epidermal chitin and play an indispensable role in insect molting. As chitin is absent in plants and mammals, these enzymes can be potential targets for the design of green insecticides. In this paper, three dual-target inhibitors against the Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis)-derived chitinases OfChtI and OfChi-h, anacardic acid, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and shionone, were obtained through high-throughput screening of 1680 natural products. The respective Ki values for OfChtI are 0.57, 0.53 and 3.95 μmol/L, and are 0.48, 1.42 and 27.33 μmol/L for OfChi-h. The molecular docking results showed that all three inhibitors were bound to the substrate-binding sites of the target enzymes through hydrophobic stacking interaction. In addition, the 1-carboxyl oxygen atom of anacardic acid, as a hydrogen bond acceptor, formed hydrogen bonds with guanidine hydrogen atoms of Arg274 side chain in OfChtI and Arg439 side chain in OfChi-h, respectively. The carbonyl and etheryl oxygen atoms of DEHP, as hydrogen bond receptors, formed hydrogen bonds with hydrogen atoms of Arg274 guanidine group side chain in OfChtI; the ether-based oxygen atom of DEHP, as a hydrogen bond acceptor, formed hydrogen bond with guanidine hydrogen atom of Arg439 side chain in OfChi-h. The insecticidal activity was determined to be 33.3% for anacardic acid and DEHP at 2 mmol/L, while shionone showed no obvious insecticidal activity. This study may provide a clue for the development of novel green pesticides targeting multiple chitinases simultaneously.
Cerium ion (Ce3+) and pyrophosphate ion coordination polymer networks for the rapid fluorometric detection of glyphosate
ZHANG Qiang, WANG Dongwei, JIANG Jiangong, LIU Xueke, LIU Donghui, ZHOU Zhiqiang
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0045
[Abstract](49) [FullText HTML](12) [PDF 1454KB](6)
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A rapid fluorometric method was established to detect glyphosate by using cerium ion and pyrophosphate ion (Ce-PPi) coordination polymer networks (CPNs). Based on coordination of cerium ion (Ce3+) and pyrophosphate ion (PPi), fluorescent Ce-PPi CPNs were synthesized by simple self-assemble process, and the structure and properties were characterized. Upon introducing glyphosate, the ligand field effect of PPi with Ce3+ was weakened resulting in a decrease in fluorescence of Ce-PPi CPNs. Based on this principle, the quantitative detection of glyphosate was achieved by optimizing the conditions, with R2 of 0.9972 and the detection limit of 0.014 μmol/L. The established method based on Ce-PPi CPNs possessed outstanding sensitivity and exclusive selectivity for rapid detction of glyphosate, and could be used for the detection of glyphosate in tap water and apple samples. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0.05 mg/kg and the recoveries were between 77% and 87%. The method provided a potential choice for the rapid, on-site and real-time, detection of glyphosate.
Discovery of fungicide flubeneteram
ZENG Lingqiang, LUO Ruitong, CHEN Qiong, HAO Gefei, ZHU Xiaolei, YANG Guangfu
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0028
[Abstract](144) [FullText HTML](46) [PDF 2959KB](28)
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Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is one of the important fungicide targets. However, many plant pathogens showed medium and even high resistance to commercial fungicides targeting upon SDH. So, it is very urgent to design new novel inhibitor for SDH. Pharmacophore-linked fragment virtual screening (PFVS) is a high-throughput drug discovery approach independent of biophysical screening techniques and flubeneteram, a novel fungicide candidate targeting SDH, was successfully obtained by PFVS. Here, the development process of the fungicide flubeneteram was analyzed in detail, including the principle of PFVS, the discovery of lead compounds, the modification of substituents and the study on fungicidal activity. The discovery process of flubeneteram would provide novel ideas and methods for pesticide researchers.
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2022, 24(4): 1-1.  
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notice
2022, 24(4): 1-1.  
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Editorial board
The First Youth Editorial Board of Chinese Journal of Pesticide Science
2022, 24(4): 1-1.  
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2022, 24(4): 1-1.  
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contents
2022, 24(4): 1-4.  
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MONOGRAPHS AND REVIEWS
Progress on the synthesis of sex pheromones of Hyphantria cunea
YUAN Chaonan, YANG Yuxiong, BIAN Qinghua, MA Xiaodong, WANG Min, ZHONG Jiangchun
2022, 24(4): 659-670.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0055
[Abstract](36) [FullText HTML](10) [PDF 2305KB](10)
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The fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea, is a significant worldwide pest, and its sex pheromone includes two alkenals and three epoxy olefins, which can be used to trap H. cunea and monitor population dynamics, and have a promising application. According to the synthesis of aldehyde, the preparations of alkenals include biomimetic synthesis, Weinreb amide method, enzyme catalyzed reaction, iridium-catalyzed hydrosilylation of esters, or cobalt-catalyzed hydrosilylation of esters; whereas on the basis of the linking approaches of key intermediates, the synthetic methods of epoxy olefins, such as thiocyanatocuprate method, Wittig coupling, alkynyl lithium reagent substitution, Gilman reagent substitution and alkylative epoxide rearrangement, were summarized.
A novel diamide insecticide — broflanilide
SONG Lulu, AI Dapeng, JU Xiulian, LIU Genyan
2022, 24(4): 671-681.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0033
[Abstract](113) [FullText HTML](42) [PDF 1001KB](33)
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Broflanilide, a negative allosteric modulator of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channel, is a novel diamide insecticide. It was mainly used for the control of lepidoptera and coleopteran pests at present, and it also exhibited high insecticidal activity against termites and flies. In this paper, the structure type, research process, mechanism of action, insecticidal activities, safety, and metabolic residue of broflanilide were mainly reviewed. Moreover, its development and application trends were also prospected.
Potential and application of plant volatile organic compounds in agricultural disease control
MA Dicheng, DOU Daolong, LIU Feng
2022, 24(4): 682-691.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0043
[Abstract](45) [FullText HTML](11) [PDF 859KB](20)
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Plant diseases caused by phytopathogenic microorganisms seriously threaten the global food security, and the development of traditional fungicides is greatly limited by the increasing resistance of pathogens to fungicides and the environmental exposure risks caused by fungicide application. A large number of plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released back into the atmosphere as signal molecules for communication and interaction between plants and the surrounding environment. Plant VOCs can protect themselves from herbivores, or attract pollinators and seed dispersers. They can also directly inhibit the growth of pathogens or activate plant defense systems. This paper reviewed the research progresses in the biosynthesis, collection, analysis, and induced release of plant VOCs, their bioactivity against phytopathogenic microorganisms, and induction of plant immune response; summarized the molecular mechanisms of the antibacterial activity and induced disease resistance of typical green leaf volatile trans-2-hexenal; discussed the limitations of plant VOCs in field applications and the prospects of future research, laying a foundation for the application of such compounds in sustainable disease control.
Classification and current situation on evaluation of pesticide residues in dual commodity as food and feed in Codex Alimentarius Commission
PIAO Xiuying, ZHANG Fengzu, LI Fugen, SHAN Weili
2022, 24(4): 692-698.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0034
[Abstract](45) [FullText HTML](19) [PDF 555KB](12)
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In this article, the classification of dual commodity as food and feed for evaluation of pesticide residues by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) was summarized. Methods for conducting dietary intake risk assessment and establishing maximum residue limit (MRL) for pesticides in dual commodity as food and feed were presented. A case study further clarified the evaluation methodologies of the Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR), which could provide a reference for improving the techniques in relevant fields in China. Meanwhile, suggestions and advises were put forward based on the current situation in China.
RESEARCH REPORTS
Design, synthesis and antifungal activity of amide hybrid molecules containing the structure of phenolic monoterpene
TAO Lihong, LI Kang, WANG Xianzhu, PU Te, SHI Jing, ZHAN Junjie, YE Min, WANG Kaibo
2022, 24(4): 699-712.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0052
[Abstract](47) [FullText HTML](9) [PDF 1813KB](19)
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Aiming to discover the amides with high antifungal activity, thirty amide hybrid molecules were designed and synthesized by combining natural phenolic monoterpene (carvacrol and thymol) with the functional groups of succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors (SDHI). The structures of the synthesized compounds were characterized by the 1H NMR, 13C NMR and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The antifungal activity of the hybrid molecules against five plant pathogenic fungus were determined by mycelial growth rate method. The results showed that the synthesized hybrid molecules exhibited excellent antifungal activity against Alternaria solani and Botrytis cinerea. Among of them, the compound 7e (N-(4-hydroxy-5-isopropyl-2-methylphenyl)-3-methylthiophene-2-carboxamide) showed the highest antifungal activity, with EC50 values of 3.28 and 15.06 μg/mL against A. solani and B.cinerea, respectively. In addition, there was no cross-resistance between compound 7e and boscalid. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity assay showed that the compound 7e had strong SDH inhibitory activity against sensitive, resistant and B-P225F mutant strains of B. cinerea. Molecular docking studies showed that compound 7e had a strong affinity with both wild-type and mutant B. cinerea succinate dehydrogenase (BcSDH). Therefore, it was speculated that compound 7e was a potential novel SDHI. The difference in SDH inhibitory activity and binding modes with wild-type and mutant BcSDH, which may account for the lack of cross-resistance between the compound 7e and boscalid.
Synthesis and insecticidal activity of chlorantraniliprole analogs containing phenylalanine and 1H-inden-1-one
FANG Jiaqi, HAO Shulin, DU Xiaohua
2022, 24(4): 713-722.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0030
[Abstract](51) [FullText HTML](22) [PDF 1016KB](11)
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In order to develop new insecticidal compounds with chlorantraniliprole as the lead, 2-methyl-3-aminobenzoic acid was used as the starting material, which was halogenated to generate 5-chloro-3-methyl-2-aminobenzoic acid; and then it was condensed with 3-bromo-1-(3-chloropyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxylic acid to give 2-(3-bromo-1-(3-chloropyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-6-chloro-8-methyl-4H-benzo[d][1,3]oxazin-4-one; finally, a phenylalanine fragment was introduced and cyclized to synthesize two series of 23 new compounds ( 4 and 5 ), compound 4 was chlorantraniliprole analog containing phenylalanine, and compound 5 was chlorantraniliprole analog containing 1H-inden-1-one fragment cyclized by compound 4 . The structures of all compounds were characterized and confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR), carbon spectroscopy (13C NMR) and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The preliminary indoor insecticidal activity tests showed that most target compounds had high insecticidal activity against oriental armyworm, Mythinma separata, with 14 compounds had 100% mortalities against M. separata at 100 mg/L, and compound 5k (the substituent in the 1H-inden-1-one fragment was hydroxyl) had 90% and 70% mortalities at 4 mg/L and 0.8 mg/L, respectively. And its LC50 value was 0.55 mg/L. In addition, molecular docking results showed that compound 5k also acted on ryanodine (RyR), just like chlorantraniliprole, but the amino acid residues bound to the target were different, which might be beneficial for research on drug resistance management of oriental armyworm.
Synthesis and biological activity of N-substituted phenyl-1-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)ethylcarbamate
YOU Jiang, GAO Yaqiang, ZHOU Pu, GUO Qiannan, XU Zhihong
2022, 24(4): 723-731.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0016
[Abstract](49) [FullText HTML](18) [PDF 680KB](9)
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In order to find highly active triazole phenyl carbamate derivatives, 1,2,4-triazole and 2-chloro-2,4-difluoroacetophenone were used as raw materials, and the strategy of active substructure splicing was adopted, eighteen N-substituted phenyl-1-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)ethyl carbamate derivatives 6a-6r were designed and synthesized. Their structures were confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The results of fungicidal activity assay showed that compound 6m had a good inhibitory effect on the 6 tested fungi at 100 μmol/L with a inhibition rate of more than 50%. The EC50 value of compound 6p against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was 7.1 μmol/L, the fungicidal activity was higher than that of the control compound diniconazole (EC50 value was 9.1 μmol/L). The results of acaricidal activity showed that at 150 μmol/L, the lethal rates of compounds 6h , 6k and 6o were 67.7%, 74.9% and 57.5% for Tetranychus cinnabarinus at 48 h, respectively, and the acaricidal activity was lower than that of the control compound abamectin B1a (100%). The compound 6o synthesized in this study has both fungicidal and acaricidal activities, which can provide a reference for the design and research of novel fungicidal and acaricidal triazole compounds.
Synthesis, fungicidal activities and three dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship of 2-substituted phenyl-5-substituted benzamide-1,3,4-thiadiazole
WANG Sanyan, PENG Yaqi, LOU Jiayu, WANG Meiyi
2022, 24(4): 732-742.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0040
[Abstract](28) [FullText HTML](6) [PDF 1174KB](14)
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Thirty-three different 2-substituted phenyl-5-substituted benzamide-1,3,4-thiadiazole E 1 -E 33 were prepared by reaction of substituted benzoic acid with thiosemicarbazone, phosphorus oxychloride and substituted benzoyl chloride. The structure of the target compounds were confirmed and characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) and high resolution mass spectroscopy (HRMS). Fungicidal activities of target compounds against Rhizopus nigricans, Penicillium glaucum, Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria brassicae and Aspergillus niger in vitro were studied with the mycelial growth rate method. A preliminary three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) of the target compounds against A. niger was carried out using CoMFA and CoMSIA. The results showed that most of the compounds showed good inhibitory activity, especially at the concentration of 50 µg/mL, the inhibitory rates of compounds E 1 , E 2 and E 29 against the tested fungi were more than 80%, which were equivalent to that of the control pesticides, chlorothalonil and carbendazim. The results of the two models are combined to draw the conclusion: the effect of electrostatic field is higher than that of other potential fields. It was advantageous to enhance the fungicidal activity of the compounds when the benzene ring a introduces electron-donating group into 4-position, the 2 and 6-positions of benzene ring a and benzene ring b introduces electron-withdrawing group. The conclusions can provide insight into further design of highly antifungal title compounds.
Biological characterization of Botrytis cinerea isolates with different sensitivity types to pydiflumetofen
YANG Kexin, BI Qiuyan, WU Jie, LU Fen, WANG Wenqiao, HAN Xiuying, ZHAO Jianjiang
2022, 24(4): 743-751.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0053
[Abstract](38) [FullText HTML](11) [PDF 1598KB](8)
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To determine the biological characteristics of Botrytis cinerea with different sensitivity types to pydiflumetofen, the resistance stability of nine B. cinerea isolates with different sensitivity types to pydiflumetofen was determined by the mycelial growth method, after sub-cultivation on fungicide-free PDA plates for ten generations, the biological characteristics such as mycelial growth rate, conidial production, conidium germination rate, and pathogenicity of these nine isolates were determined on PDA medium and detached leaves; The sensitivity of these nine isolates to temperature, pH value, and glucose was determined by mycelial growth method, and the four succinate dehydrogenase subunits gene A(SdhA), B(SdhB), C(SdhC) and D(SdhD) were cloned and sequenced. These results showed that the factors of sensitivity change (FSC) of two low-resistant isolates, two medium-resistant isolates, and two high-resistant isolates obtained from the field ranged from 0.60 to 1.15, while the FSC of the high-resistant isolate BLH5F obtained by fungicide-selection in the laboratory was 0.23. There was no significant difference between resistant and sensitive phenotypes of the B. cinerea isolates on mycelial growth, spore production, conidium germination rate, and pathogenicity, except that the mycelial growth rate of the low-resistant isolate WP8 was significantly lower than that of the two sensitive isolates, and the spore productions of the medium-resistant isolate WP6 and the high-resistant isolate WPE9 were significantly lower than that of the two sensitive isolates. On the whole, there was no significant difference between the seven resistant isolates and the two sensitive isolates in the sensitivity to temperature, pH value, and glucose. The histidine (His) was replaced by arginine (Arg) at position 272 of SdhB gene (H272R) in the high resistance isolate BLH5F obtained from the laboratory by fungicide-selection and the proline (Pro) changed to leucine (Leu) at position 225 of SdhB gene (P225L) in two low-resistant isolates, two medium-resistant isolates, and two high-resistant isolates obtained from the field. All the results showed that the fitness of B. cinerea with different sensitivity types to pydiflumetofen was similar. So, it was speculated that the isolates resistant to pydiflumetofen were easy to form a dominant population under the fungicide selection in the field.
Study on uptake and translocation of five fungicides in rice
ZHANG Shuojia, WANG Chaojie, XU Bo, RAN Gangchao, CAO Lidong, CAO Chong, HUANG Qiliang, ZHU Feng, ZHAO Pengyue
2022, 24(4): 752-761.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0042
[Abstract](115) [FullText HTML](39) [PDF 1088KB](28)
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Foliage spray is the most commonly used method of chemical pesticide application at present, but it has some defects such as evaporation, drift, bounce, rupture, and excess spread, resulting in low utilization of pesticides. Through the investigation of pesticide absorption and conductivity and the selection of appropriate pesticides for root application, the adverse effects of environmental factors on the active pesticide ingredients will be reduced. Longer efficacy can be maintained through slow release and dose regulation of pesticides to effectively improve the utilization of pesticides. In this paper, the absorption and conduction behaviors of five different types of fungicides (tricyclazole, thifluzamide, hexaconazole, epoxiconazole, azoxystrobin) in rice seedlings were studied through indoor nutrient soil and nutrient solution cultivation modes. The results showed that all the five fungicides could be absorbed and transmitted upward in rice seedlings, but the transmission performance was affected by the nature of the pesticides themselves. Under both cultivation conditions of nutrient soil and solution, the dose distribution of tricyclazole in the roots of rice seedlings was significantly higher than that in the aerial portions within 4 h-2 d, and the translocation factor (TF) values of tricyclazole in rice were all greater than 1 after treatment 5 days. It was shown that tricyclazole had the best upward transmission performance, while the other four pesticides showed poor upward transmission ability in rice. Tricyclazole is the most suitable for root application and the easiest to be absorbed by the root of rice and upward transmitted to leaves for the resistance to pathogen infections. This study can provide technical guidance for the pesticide selection of root application and the theoretical basis for the scientific and rational use of pesticides.
Effects of combination of hymexazol and Bacillus megaterium on Fusarium wilt of continuous cropping melon (Cucumis sativus L.)
WANG Yeqing, LIU Fang, PAN Jiyuan, LU Xiujun, LIU Wenju, LI Bowen
2022, 24(4): 762-770.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0029
[Abstract](12) [FullText HTML](2) [PDF 827KB](6)
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In order to alleviate the harm caused by Fusarium wilt to continuous cropping melon, the soil obstacle degree from melon continuous cropping area in Qing County of Hebei Province was analyzed. Moreover, the effects of the combination of hymexazol and Bacillus megaterium on the growth and the alleviation effect of melon wilt were studied through indoor pots and field trials, and the preliminary analysis of the soil microbial community composition was performed. The results showed that the root-shoot ratio and whole plant dry weights of pumpkin and melon seedlings cultivated in continuous cropping soil for 11 years were significantly lower than those for one year. In addition, the number of bacteria and actinomycetes were the lowest, but the number of fungi was the highest in the soil with continuous cropping melon for 11 years. Meanwhile, the relative abundance of Fusarium was the most obvious, showing a significant difference from that in the soil for one year, the relative abundance of Bacillus in one year soil was 2.65 times that of 11 years soil. There was no antagonism between hymexazol and B. megaterium b1. The EC50 of hymexazol and B. megaterium b1 to F. oxysporum T2 were 10.82 mg/L and 2.02 ×105 CFU/mL, respectively. When 11 years of continuous cropping soil was used to cultivate melon seedlings and treated with hymexazol and B. megaterium b1 strain with EC50 concentration, the controlling effects on melon Fusarium wilt were 42.85% in the melon flowering period, which was better than the treatments of hymexazol, B. megaterium b1 strain and blank control. The root-shoot ratio and the whole plant dry weight of melon seedlings treated with combination were promoted and significantly different from the single treatments and the control. The results of field experiments showed that the control efficiency of B. megaterium , hymexazol and combined agent to melon wilt on continuous cropping soil were 16.62%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. The melon plant height of each treatment was 11.19%, 10.63%, and 16.03% higher than that of the control, respectively. The yield increase rates were 20.35%, 11.23%, and 26.15% respectively. The average root dry weight per plant was 40.63%, 34.69%, and 64.38% higher than the control with significant differences (P<0.05), respectively. The number of fungi decreased whereas the number of bacteria and actinomycetes increased. The relative abundance of Fusarium was 35.96%, 59.55%, and 71.91% lower than the control, respectively. The relative abundance of Bacillus increased by 47.25%, 3.52%, and 76.70% compared with the control, respectively. The results indicated that the combination of hymexazol and B. megaterium could promote the growth of melon and relieve melon wilt in continuous cropping soil, effectively improve the soil microbial community composition, and alleviate continuous cropping obstacles.
Identification of a halophyte rhizobacterium B268 and its activity in microbial inhibition and salt tolerance
LI Chuqiao, WANG Tianyu, YIN Ying, CHEN Anliang, ZHANG Xinqi, CHEN Xuhua
2022, 24(4): 771-781.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0022
[Abstract](11) [FullText HTML](4) [PDF 1609KB](3)
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To tap the resource of halotolerant biocontrol agents, a bacterial strain B268 was isolated from the rhizosphere of halophyte Casuarina equisetifolia L. It was identified based on the polyphasic taxonomic approach. The viable count method and dural culture method were used to assess the antimicrobial activities. Gene clusters related to the biosynthesis of antimicrobial compounds were predicted with antiSMASH. The influence of salt stress on biocontrol traits of B268 was analyzed by checking both the physiological activities and the gene expression levels of cells grown under NaCl gradient conditions. The effect of B268 on plant salt tolerance was evaluated with cucumber seedlings under hydroponic conditions. According to the results of polyphasic identification, strain B268 represents a novel phylotype of the conspecific Bacillus velezensis group. The NaCl concentration (W/V) for growth was 0-15% with the optimum at 3%. Thirteen gene clusters devoted to antimicrobial production were predicted in B268 genome. Nine phytopathogens tested were antagonized by B268, among which negative growth was detected in Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum treated with B268 for 8 hours, and the inhibition rate to Valsa mali var. mali, Alternaria alternate, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Alternaria solani were higher than 60%. The concentration of extracellular siderophore and indole-3-acetic acid reached the highest at 1% and 3% (W/V) NaCl, respectively and the phosphate solubilizing index remained stable on the NaCl gradient plates. The expression of indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis gene dhaS and phytase coding gene phyC were maximally up-regulated at 1% (W/V) NaCl, and siderophore biosynthesis gene dhbC showed the highest expression at 3% (W/V) NaCl. In the hydroponic condition, cucumber seedlings inoculated with B268 were found to be insensitive to 80 mmol/L NaCl and tolerance to 120 mmol/L NaCl, which was illustrated by an increase of soluble sugar by 46.4% and a decrease of malondialdehyde by 67.2% in leaves. In conclusion, B268 is a halophilic biocontrol bacterium with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and its growth-promoting activities show coupling responses to salt. It is suggested that B268 can be used in the biocontrol of plant pathogens or salt stress, as well as in the bioremediation of salinized soils.
Optimization of inhibition conditions of Trichoderma atroviride T2 fermentation liquid protein extract TraT2A and its field control efficacy for lily leaf spot disease
CHEN Ying’e, LIANG Qiaolan, WEI Liexin, TONG Fayu, WANG Dong
2022, 24(4): 782-788.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0031
[Abstract](75) [FullText HTML](24) [PDF 588KB](13)
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In order to improve the inhibition activity and light stability of the protein extract TraT2A from the fermentation broth of Trichoderma atroviride T2 strain, the ultraviolet protective agents (ascorbic acid, humic acid) and the auxiliary agent (IE-08, SP-4821A and SP-4821B) were screened, the inhibition condition of TraT2A for Alternaria alternata were optimized through the colony growth rate test, and the field control efficacy on lily leaf spot disease was determined. The results showed that TraT2A had a good inhibitory effect on A.alternata at 200.00 mg/mL and the inhibitory rate was 72.12%. With the prolongation of the UV illumination time, the inhibition activity of TraT2A gradually decreases. The addition of 5.00 mg/mL humic acid had an excellent UV protection effect on TraT2A and its inhibition rate (69.01%) increased by 39.64% compared with that without a UV protection agent (29.37%). The addition of 0.17 mg/mL adjuvant of SP-4821A increased the inhibition activity of TraT2A most significantly and the inhibition rate (95.13%) increased by 25.97% compared with the TraT2A control (69.16%). According to the optimized formula, 200 g TraT2A (the mass concentration was 200.00 mg/mL), 5 g humic acid (the mass concentration was 5.00 mg/mL), 0.17 g SP-4821A (the mass concentration was 0.17 mg/mL) and 794.83 mL sterilized water was mixed and the field control efficacy of the mixture was tested on lily leaf spot disease, the result showed that its field control efficacy was 80.37%. The research results provide a theoretical basis for the further development of TraT2A preparations for the control of lily diseases.
Multiple resistance detection to glyphosate and other herbicides in Conyza sumatrensis and the evaluation of chemical control herbicides
GUO Wenlei, YU Chaojie, ZHANG Chun, ZHANG Taijie, TIAN Xingshan
2022, 24(4): 789-797.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0021
[Abstract](34) [FullText HTML](6) [PDF 1212KB](7)
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In South China, Conyza sumatrensis is a common broadleaf weed, and often causes serious damage in orchards and uncultivated areas. Whole plant dose-response experiments were conducted to evaluate the resistance levels of the suspected resistant population (GZ-R, collected from Guangzhou, Guangdong Province) to glyphosate, paraquat and diquat. The fragments of the glyphosate target enzyme gene, EPSPS2, were sequenced and compared between GZ-R and the susceptible population (QY-S, collected from Qingyuan, Guangdong Province). In addition, the control efficacies of five post-emergence herbicides (including bentazone, fluroxypyr, etc) on GZ-R and QY-S population at different leaf stages were also assessed. The results showed that GZ-R population had evolved moderate and high levels of resistance to glyphosate and paraquat, respectively. In addition, GZ-R population had also evolved cross resistance to diquat. The LD50 values of GZ-R population to glyphosate, paraquat and diquat were 7.2, 72.3 and 6.6 folds than QY-S population, respectively. Compared to QY-S population, the mutation of EPSPS2 site 106 from Pro to Thr was found in GZ-R population. At the recommended field dosages, when bentazone, fluroxypyr and MCPA-sodium were sprayed at the 4-5 leaf stage, the mortality rate of C. sumatrensis plants was 100%. However, the mortality rate declined significantly to 44.4%-91.7% when the above three herbicides were sprayed at the 6-7 and 10-12 leaf stages. In comparison, at the the recommended field dosages of glufosinate-ammonium and saflufenacil, the mortality rates maintained at 100% regardless of the leaf stage. In summary, glufosinate-ammonium and saflufenacil can be applied for controlling glyphosate- and/or paraquat- resistant C. sumatrensis at its early growth stage.
Resistance level and target-site resistance mechanism to bensulfuron-methyl in Ammannia multiflora
YANG Qian, WEI Tian, ZHU Jinlei, LIU Huaia, LV Min
2022, 24(4): 798-804.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0027
[Abstract](23) [FullText HTML](4) [PDF 994KB](8)
Abstract:
In order to investigate the resistance level and molecular mechanism of Ammannia multiflora Roxb. in paddy fields to acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibiting herbicide bensulfuron-methyl, the resistance index (RI) of a putative resistant population YZ-R collected from Yangzhou city were performed by the whole-plant dose-response experiments. In vitro ALS enzyme sensitivity to bensulfuron-methyl and the nucleotide sequence of ALS gene from the susceptible population YZ-S and resistant population YZ-R were analyzed to characterize the target-site resistance mechanism. The whole-plant dose-response assays indicated that the YZ-R population had evolved a high level (RI = 40.6) of resistance to bensulfuron-methyl. In addition, the I50 values of YZ-R and YZ-S were 0.087 and 0.0028 μmol/L, respectively, and the RI was 31.1. The partial sequence of the target ALS gene was cloned by PCR, which contains eight reported amino acid mutation sites. Sequence alignment results showed the substitution of proline (Pro) 197 by serine (Ser) in the YZ-R population. This study demonstrated that the reduced ALS enzyme sensitivity to bensulfuron-methyl resulted from the Pro-197-Ser substitution in the ALS gene, which was the main cause of the high-level resistance to bensulfuron-methyl in A. multiflora.
Early diagnosis of mesosulfuron-methyl phytotoxicity on wheat
LI Tao, MENG Dandan, YANG Weiping, GUO Shuiliang, FAN Jiequn
2022, 24(4): 805-811.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0041
[Abstract](13) [FullText HTML](1) [PDF 1726KB](4)
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The phytotoxicity to current and subsequent crops is an important factor affecting the application of sulfonylurea herbicides. Mesosulfuron-methyl is one of the commonly used herbicides in wheat fields. For early diagnosis of phytotoxicity on wheat by mesosulfuron-methyl, the plant height, shoot fresh weight, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, proline (Pro) content, soluble sugar content, chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm, and root morphology were determined by a dose-response experiment in the greenhouse. The results showed that the wheat seedlings did not show dwarfing and inhibition until 10 days after mesosulfuron-methyl 30g/L OD (9-45 g/hm2) application. However, the contents of MDA, Pro, and soluble sugar, Fv/Fm, and root morphology had shown obvious changes 5 days after mesosulfuron-methyl application. The contents of MDA and Pro increased with the increase of mesosulfuron-methyl dosages. After being treated with mesosulfuron-methyl at 27 g/hm2 or more, the contents of MDA and Pro were significantly higher than control. The content of soluble sugar and Fv/Fm were more sensitive to the stress of mesosulfuron-methyl. After being treated with mesosulfuron-methyl at 9 g/hm2 or more, the soluble sugar content was significantly higher than control, while the Fv/Fm was significantly lower than control. Mesosulfuron-methyl applied at 9-45 g/hm2 also reduced the number of root tips, total root length, total root surface area, and total root volume of wheat seedlings. MDA, Pro, soluble sugar, Fv/Fm, and root morphology can be used as sensitive indicators for early diagnosis of mesosulfuron-methyl phytotoxicity on wheat seedlings.
Synergistic effect and field efficacy of penoxsulam mixed with diflufenican against weeds in transplanted rice
XU Yonghua, ZHAO Hengke, ZHAO Lingjie, HOU Jianyu
2022, 24(4): 812-818.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0060
[Abstract](60) [FullText HTML](13) [PDF 572KB](13)
Abstract:
Diflufenican is a carotenoid biosynthesis inhibiting herbicide, the synergistic effect, and field efficacy of diflufenican mixed with acetolactate synthase inhibiting herbicide penoxsulam against weeds in rice were evaluated in greenhouse and field. The results showed that penoxsulam combined with diflufenican exhibited an additive effect for the control of Echinochloa crusgalli, Digitaria sanguinalis, Cyperus difformis and Eclipta prostrata. When the dose ratio of penoxsulam and diflufenican was (1-2)﹕(5-10), the weed control efficacy was higher than penoxsulam or diflufenican applied alone. The results of field experiments showed that the penoxsulam + diflufenican 300 g/L SC was safe for transplanted rice, and had good efficacy against E. crusgalli, C. difformis, Ammannia arenarid, and Ludwigia prostrata by spraying treatment on stem and leaf of rice 8 days after transplanting, especially to the notorious weeds such as A. arenarid and L. prostrata. The ratios of weed density and the fresh weight reduction were 93.8%-95.8% and 94.1%-96.1% 35 days after treatment with the doses of the active ingredients as 112.5-135.0 g/hm2. The mixtures had significantly higher control efficacy than the conventional herbicides bensulfuron methyl + acetochlor 22% WP and penoxsulam or diflufenican alone. The combination of penoxsulam and diflufenican was safe for rice and could expand the weed control spectrum with high efficacy, which could be used in transplanted rice fields for annual weed control.
Sensitivity of field populations of Grapholita molesta in Gansu Province to eight insecticides using the egg dipping method
LIU Yueying, ZHOU Zhaoxu, ZHANG Meijiao, CAO Lijun
2022, 24(4): 819-824.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0023
[Abstract](11) [FullText HTML](1) [PDF 543KB](8)
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Grapholita molesta (Busck) is an important pest in fruit tree production in northern China. In order to determine the resistance level of G. molesta population to commonly used insecticides in Gansu Province, the sensitivity of field populations of G. molesta from three different areas to eight insecticides was determined by the egg dipping method and the status of insecticide resistance was analyzed. The results showed that field populations of G. molesta showed moderate resistance to spinetoram (RR = 10.24-14.27), low to moderate resistance to deltamethyrin (RR = 8.85-11.44), moderate resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorantraniliprole and spirotetramat (RR = 18.89-86.62), and high resistance to abamectin, emamectin benzoate and indoxacarb (RR = 99.82-189.81). The results provide a scientific basis for the scientific and rational application of insecticides in the control of G. molesta in orchards.
Influence of the spray volumes and adjuvants on operational efficacy of plant protection unmanned aerial vehicle at the seedling stage of cotton
HU Hongyan, CHEN Yunan, SONG Xianpeng, MA Yajie, LIU Qingmei, WANG Dan, SHAN Yongpan, MA Yan
2022, 24(4): 825-833.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0050
[Abstract](19) [FullText HTML](2) [PDF 866KB](10)
Abstract:
In order to explore the influence of the spray volumes and adjuvants on droplet deposition and aphid control efficacy of insecticide, spray tests were carried out by an MG-1P electric-powered multi-rotor plant protection unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in a cotton field (seedling stage). Acetamiprid 5% EC was sprayed by UAV under three different spray volumes (15.0, 22.5, and 30.0 L/hm2), and two adjuvants (YS09 and Beidatong). Allura red was used as a tracer in the determination of droplet deposition and pesticide utilization. The droplet density and coverage rate were analyzed by the image processing software Deposit-Scan. The results showed that the droplet density and droplet coverage on the leaves significantly increased with the increase in spray volumes. The droplet density on the adaxial surface and abaxial surface of cotton leaves were higher at the volume of 30.0 L/hm2, with the droplet density of 43.42 droplets/cm2 and 58.04 droplets/cm2, the droplet coverage of 6.44% and 6.34%, respectively. The pesticide utilization rates of different spray volume tests by UAV were 3.53%, 3.70%, and 4.00%, which were lower than that of the knapsack electrostatic sprayer. Moreover, the control efficiencies of these UAV tests on the 1st- and 3rd- day were also lower than that of the knapsack electrostatic sprayer test. The addition of two adjuvants, YS09 and Beidatong, had no significant effect on droplet density, droplet coverage, and pesticide utilization rate on cotton leaves, but improved the control effect on cotton aphids. On the 1st day after spraying, the control efficacies of YS09 and Beidatong treatments were 86.24% and 84.40%, respectively, which increased by 9.34% and 7.48% compared with the control group. On the 3rd day, the control efficacies reached 95.34% and 94.73%, respectively, which were comparable to that of the knapsack electrostatic sprayer (94.36%) but still higher than that of the control group (88.06%). The results indicated that the increase in spray volume could enhance the number of droplets deposited on the leaves and the addition of adjuvant increased the control efficacy of acetamiprid against cotton aphids.
Effect of cotton harvest aid solutions on spraying efficacy by plant protection unmanned aerial vehicles
DOU Zechen, FANG Zhihao, DU Rui, HAN Xiaoqiang, WANG Guobin, LIU Yapeng, WEN Mingkai, HADLIBEK Biekebao
2022, 24(4): 834-843.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0024
[Abstract](42) [FullText HTML](10) [PDF 1965KB](13)
Abstract:
In order to guide the scientific preparation of cotton harvest aid solutions, the changes in physicochemical properties of four harvest aid solutions with different storage times and their effects on defoliation efficiency sprayed by plant protection unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) were evaluated. The results showed that the suspension rate and retention of 540 g/L thidiazuron + diuron SC system at 0 h were the best, which were 95.5% and 5.49 mg/cm2, respectively. 68% Thidiazuron + diuron WP solution system had the best contact angle on cotton leaves at 0 h (0°). The stability of thidiazuron in 81% thidiazuron + diuron WG and 12% thidiazuron + diuron OD was acceptable, and the decomposition rates decreased by 11.63% and 14.47% respectively after 24 h. In general, the suspension rate, retention, and thidiazuron content of the four harvest aid solutions decreased with the extension of storage time, and the decrease was the most significant at 0.5-1 h. The storage time of the solution has different effects on the droplet volume median diameter(VMD, Dv50), droplet coverage, and droplet uniformity when sprayed by the plant protection UAV. The defoliation rates of the four kinds of cotton harvest aid solutions had little variation at each storage time and decreased with the extension of storage time. The defoliation rate decreased the fastest within 0-1 h. The four harvest aid solutions had a significant effect on the defoliation rate of cotton after being placed for more than 1 h, and the effect was the greatest after being placed for 12 h after preparation. These results can provide a theoretical basis for the scientific preparation and spraying of cotton harvest aid solutions.
Comparison of the embryonic developmental toxicity of cyfluthrin and lambda-cyhalothrin on zebrafish through the benchmark dose (BMD) method
LUO Sunlin, FAN Ruiqi, ZHANG Wanjun, JIA Li, YUAN Xiaoyan, CHEN Yiqiang
2022, 24(4): 844-850.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0025
[Abstract](20) [FullText HTML](9) [PDF 1124KB](3)
Abstract:
Cyfluthrin and lambda-cyhalothrin are two typical insecticides that are widely used. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were used as a model and were continuously exposed to the two pesticides for 96 h. During the period, the autonomous tail flicks at 24 h post fertilization, the heart rate and hatching rate of larvae at 48 h post fertilization, and the deformity rate and mortality rate of larvae at 96 h post fertilization were measured, and such indicators were considered to evaluate the embryonic developmental toxicity of two pyrethroid insecticides. To explore the application prospect of the benchmark dose (BMD) method in evaluating the environmental risk of pesticides, the BMD method was used to calculate their sensitivity indicators. The most sensitive indicator of cyfluthrin was 48 h post-fertilization juvenile heart rate, the most sensitive indicator of lambda-cyhalothrin was 48 h post-fertilization hatching rate and the toxicity threshold of cyfluthrin was lower. In addition, most BMDL10 of different developmental parameters of cyfluthrin and beta-cyhalothrin were lower than the LOAEL values. The results suggest that the BMD method can compare the differences in the toxicity of similar pesticides and fully and accurately mine the experimental data, which can provide new ideas and strategies for the environmental risk assessment of pesticides.
Allied t oxicity and residual dynamics of procymidone and fludioxonil on gray mold of cucumber
ZHANG Jiangzhao, XU Chongxin, SHEN Yan, GAO Meijing, LU Lina, LU Fei, LIU Xianjin
2022, 24(4): 851-858.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0017
[Abstract](23) [FullText HTML](7) [PDF 1550KB](7)
Abstract:
This study explored the toxicity of the combined application of fungicide procymidone and fludioxonil on cucumber gray mold, and then analyzed their residual dynamics, which will be helpful to enhance the risk prevention and control levels of two fungicides for the cucumber and its habitat environment. The EC50 of procymidone and fludioxonil against Botrytis cinerea were determined by the mycelial growth inhibition method and were 0.069 mg/L and 0.103 mg/L, respectively. The EC50 value of the mixture of procymidone and fludioxonil at a 1﹕1 ratio against B. cinerea was 0.016 mg/L and the synergistic ratio was 5.0, indicating a strong synergistic effect. The results of scanning electron microscope showed that the mycelia of B. cinerea showed mycelia shriveled and intracellular material overflowed, respectively, when treated with procymidone and fludioxonil separately for 3 days; Whereas, the mycelia of B. cinerea showed mycelia shriveled and intracellular material overflowed at the same time when treated with the mixture of procymidone and fludioxonil at 1﹕1 ratio for 3 days. These results confirmed the duplicate effect of the two fungicides. To further analyze the dynamic of pesticide residue after using the mixture of procymidone and fludioxonil, a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was established, which could detect procymidone and fludioxonil concurrently. The recovery ratios of procymidone and fludioxonil were 100%-102% and 94%-96%, respectively, the RSD of procymidone and fludioxonil were 1.7%-5.3% and 2.8%-3.4%, and the LOQ was 0.01 mg/L, which met the testing requirements. The field experiment showed that the final residue was reduced by 59% and 86% when using the mixture of procymidone and fludioxonil at 1﹕1 ratio compared with using the two fungicides alone. The half-life was 5.38 d and 6.93 d respectively for procymidone and fludioxonil when used alone, and the half-life was reduced to 4.39 d and 4.33 d when the mixture of the two fungicides was used. These results suggested that the mixture of procymidone and fludioxonil has an increased toxicological effect against B. cinerea. The conclusion provided a theoretical basis for reducing fungicides and was meaningful for reducing the pesticide residue risk on cucumber.
A rapid screening method for 193 pesticide residues in 3 traditional Chinese medicines containing alkaloids by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry
CAO Yimin, ZHOU Heng, LAN Lan, MIAO Shui, HU Qing, MAO Xiuhong, ZHANG Hongmei, JI Shen
2022, 24(4): 859-871.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0035
[Abstract](34) [FullText HTML](9) [PDF 1291KB](6)
Abstract:
A method for the fast screening and detection of 193 pesticide residues in 3 traditional Chinese medicines containing alkaloids was established based on ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS). The samples were extracted by QuEChERS method, cleaned up by dispersed solid phase extraction (d-SPE) with cation exchange adsorbents, and separated by Agilent Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column (3.0 mm × 150 mm, 2.7 μm) with aqueous solution and methanol solution containing 0.1% formic acid and 5 mmol/L ammonium formate as mobile phase. Mass spectrometry adopted the full scan/data dependent acquisition mode (Full MS/ddMS2). External standard method was used for quantitative analysis. The results showed that 193 pesticides had good linear relationships within the corresponding concentration ranges, and the correlation coefficients (r) were all above 0.99, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 10-100 μg/kg. At three different spiking levels of 10, 50 and 100 μg/kg, the average recoveries of 193 pesticides in Rhizoma Corydalis, Rhizoma Coptidis and Cortex Phellodendri were in the range of 58%-120%, 68%-124% and 73%-122%, respectively, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were within 20% (n=6). The sample preparation of the established method is simple and rapid. Using the UPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS, through the quantitative and qualitative analysis of precursor ions and the qualitative confirmation of fragments ions and retention time, the screening accuracy of pesticide residues in traditional Chinese medicines containing alkaloids was significantly improved. It can be used for the rapid screening and daily risk monitoring of pesticide residues in the three traditional Chinese medicines containing alkaloids.
Determination of 39 pesticides in water and sediments by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
JI Bingxin, HAO Yuyang, XU Yanjun, LIN Yongfeng, LI Ji, TIAN Guangming, WEI Yuquan, DING Guochun, XU Ting
2022, 24(4): 872-883.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0036
[Abstract](11) [FullText HTML](1) [PDF 2039KB](4)
Abstract:
A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the simultaneous determination of 39 pesticides residues in water and sediments was developed. The water sample was extracted with ethyl acetate and was passed through a column loaded with anhydrous sodium sulfate. The sediment sample was ultrasonically extracted with acetonitrile and then cleaned up with N-propyl ethylenediamine (PSA) and graphitized carbon black (GCB). The pesticide residues were detected in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode and was quantified by external standard method. The results showed that the linear relationship of the 39 pesticides was good with coefficient of determination (R2) > 0.9950. The recoveries of pesticides spiked in blank water samples at three levels (0.25, 0.5, and 5.0 µg/L) were in range of 72%-111%, with the relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 5) of 1.1%-10%. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.02-0.06 μg/L and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.04-0.18 μg/L. The average recoveries of pesticides spiked in blank sediment samples at three levels (5.0, 20.0, and 100.0 µg/kg) were in range of 65%-119%, with the RSD of 2.1%-12%. The LODs were 0.7-1.5 μg/kg and the LOQs were 2.1-4.3 μg/kg. The established method is sensitive, accurate, and reliable. It is suitable for the detection of 39 target pesticides in water and sediments.
Residue and dietary exposure risk assessment of pyrimethanil in blueberries
MA Lin, ZHU Weifang, ZHAN Xiuping, CHEN Jianbo, ZHAO Li
2022, 24(4): 884-889.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0032
[Abstract](31) [FullText HTML](3) [PDF 607KB](15)
Abstract:
In order to assess the dietary exposure risk of pyrimethanil residue in blueberries, the terminal residues and decline trends of pyrimethanil used in blueberries were studied. The dietary exposure and risk assessment were conducted based on the supervised field trial data. The blueberries were sprayed in 2 times at an interval of 7 d with pyrimethanil at a dosage of 360 a.i. g/hm2. The results showed that the average recoveries of pyrimethanil in blueberry samples at five spiked levels from 0.01 mg/kg to 1 mg/kg were 97%-100% , with the relative standard deviation (RSD) ranged from 4.5% to 12%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) of pyrimethanil in blueberries was 0.01 mg/kg. The decline dynamics of pyrimethanil accorded with the first-order kinetics, and the half-lives of pyrimethanil was 3.2 d . At 3, 5, 7, 10 days after the last application, the terminal residue levels of pyrimethanil at harvesting was 0.18-1.54 mg/kg. Chronic risk quotient of pyrimethanil was calculated from residue trial data, their acceptable daily intake, dietary consumption of berries in 97.5% and body weight of Chinese residents of all ages which from GEMS. The long-term dietary intake risk assessment at 97.5% food consumption showed that the contribution rate of blueberries residues to the ADI for all ages was less than 0.1%. This indicated that the chronic dietary intake risk of pyrimethanil through blueberries was very low.
RESEARCH NOTES
Study on influencing factors of photochemical degradation of coumoxystrobin in buffer solutions
ZHOU Yuhang, YU Xiaolong, CAO Zhanwen, GUO Nan, HOU Xingang, LU Zhongbin, HOU Zhiguang
2022, 24(4): 890-894.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0038
[Abstract](20) [FullText HTML](4) [PDF 600KB](8)
Abstract:
In order to better comprehend the fate of coumoxystrobin in the environment, the photolysis of coumoxystrobin under different light sources (500 W xenon lamp and 20 W mercury lamp), initial concentrations (1, 5, 10, and 15 mg/L) and pH values (4, 7 and 9) were investigated based on the method recommended by China Test Guidelines on Chemical Pesticide Environmental Safety Assessment via high-performance liquid chromatography. The results demonstrated that the photolysis of coumoxystrobin under the experimental conditions matched quasi first-order kinetic equation. The photolysis half-lives under 500 W xenon lamp and 20 W mercury lamp were 2.23 and 1.10 h, respectively. The photolysis rate of 20 W mercury lamp was about twice that of 500 W xenon lamp. Under the same irradiation conditions, the photolysis rate decreased with the increasing initial concentrations, which were negatively correlated. The photolysis rate of coumoxystrobin in the three buffer solutions showed as follows: pH 9 > pH 4 > pH 7. Tween 80 could inhibit the photolysis of coumoxystrobin. The study provide references for the rational use and environmental assessment of coumoxystrobin.
Manuscript
2022, 24(4): 1-1.  
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[Abstract](35) [FullText HTML](11) [PDF 5110KB](24)
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Research and development of crop protection machinery and chemical application technology in China
HE Xiongkui
2019, 21(5-6): 921-930.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2019.0089
[Abstract](2353) [FullText HTML](1366) [PDF 1400KB](199)
Research advances and application prospects of microencapsulation techniques in pesticide
LI Beixing, ZHANG Daxia, ZHANG Canguang, GUAN Lei, WANG Kai, LIU Feng
2014, 16(5): 483-496.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-7303.2014.05.01
[Abstract](4839) [PDF 1351KB](1086)
Research progress on insecticides resistance in fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda
WANG Qinqin, CUI Li, WANG Li, LIANG Pei, YUAN Huizhu, RUI Changhui
2019, 21(4): 401-408.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2019.0072
[Abstract](4931) [FullText HTML](2057) [PDF 509KB](201)
Research progresses on the metabolic mechanisms of organophosphate insecticides
Wang Zhichao, Kang Zhijiao, Shi Xueyan, Gao Xiwu
2015, 17(1): 1-14.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-7303.2015.01.01
[Abstract](4518) [PDF 1725KB](862)
Preliminary studies on synergism and mechanisms of six organosilicon additives on fomesafen
Zhang Zhongliang, Li Xiangquan, Wang Huan, Liu Yingchun, Tao Bo
2015, 17(1): 115-118.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-7303.2015.01.17
[Abstract](3661) [PDF 970KB](489)
Synergism of six spray adjuvants on mesotrione in controlling Echinochloa crus-galli and Amaranthus retroflexus
Zhang Jing, Lü Heping, Cao Lidong, Liu Yajing, Zhao Peng, Li Fengmin, Huang Qiliang
2015, 17(3): 348-356.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-7303.2015.03.15
[Abstract](3608) [PDF 1437KB](405)
Mechanism of insect metabolic resistance to pyrethroid insecticides
CHEN Chengyu, SHI Xueyan, GAO Xiwu
2016, 18(5): 545-555.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2016.0078
[Abstract](1568) [PDF 1365KB](287)
Research progress and prospects of microbial pesticide formulation for plant disease control
LIU Zhenhua, LUO Yuanchan, ZHANG Daojing, LI Yuanguang
2014, 16(5): 497-507.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-7303.2014.05.02
[Abstract](4301) [PDF 1299KB](804)
Development and evaluation of chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunoassay for residue detection of three organophosphorus pesticides
ZOU Rubing, LIU Ying, WANG Shuangjie, ZHANG Ya, GUO Yirong, ZHU Guonian
2017, 19(1): 37-45.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2017.0006
[Abstract](1398) [FullText HTML](203) [PDF 1269KB](125)
Matrix effects in pesticide residue analysis in various vegetable samples
ZHANG Yuanyuan, LIU Lei, LI Na, LI Hui, LU Na, GUO Yongze, ZHANG Yuting
2019, 21(3): 327-337.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2019.0040
[Abstract](1121) [FullText HTML](161) [PDF 1081KB](84)