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机插秧同步施用噁草酮-复合肥缓释颗粒剂的研制及其田间应用

唐伟 张建萍 杨永杰 袁静 陈杰 陆永良

唐伟, 张建萍, 杨永杰, 袁静, 陈杰, 陆永良. 机插秧同步施用噁草酮-复合肥缓释颗粒剂的研制及其田间应用[J]. 农药学学报. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0029
引用本文: 唐伟, 张建萍, 杨永杰, 袁静, 陈杰, 陆永良. 机插秧同步施用噁草酮-复合肥缓释颗粒剂的研制及其田间应用[J]. 农药学学报. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0029
Wei TANG, Jianping ZHANG, Yongjie YANG, Jing YUAN, Jie CHEN, Yongliang LU. Development and application of oxadiazon-fertilizer slow-release granule for synchronous application in mechanical transplanting rice[J]. Chinese Journal of Pesticide Science. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0029
Citation: Wei TANG, Jianping ZHANG, Yongjie YANG, Jing YUAN, Jie CHEN, Yongliang LU. Development and application of oxadiazon-fertilizer slow-release granule for synchronous application in mechanical transplanting rice[J]. Chinese Journal of Pesticide Science. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0029

机插秧同步施用噁草酮-复合肥缓释颗粒剂的研制及其田间应用

doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0029
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划项目 (2018YFD0200304,2016YFD0200801;国家水稻产业技术体系资助项目 (CARS-01)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    唐伟,男,博士,副研究员,主要从事除草剂及杂草学研究,E-mail:tangwei@caas.cn

    通讯作者:

    陈杰,通信作者 (Author for correspondence),女,博士,研究员,主要从事农药学和杂草学研究,E-mail:chenjie@zafu.edu.cn

    陆永良,通信作者 (Author for correspondence),男,硕士,研究员,主要从事杂草防控技术研究,E-mail:luyongliang@caas.cn

  • 中图分类号: S482.4; TQ450.2

Development and application of oxadiazon-fertilizer slow-release granule for synchronous application in mechanical transplanting rice

  • 摘要: 稻田草害是影响中国机插秧生产最严重的限制因素之一,研发机插秧时可同步施用的除草剂产品和杂草防控技术是移栽稻亟需解决的问题。本文以噁草酮和复合肥为核心,采用聚乳酸进行包膜,制得3种具有不同缓释时间的噁草酮-复合肥缓释颗粒剂 (噁草酮有效成分含量0.25%);在田间小区试验条件下,比较了该缓释颗粒剂在机插秧时同步施药对秧苗的安全性 及对杂草的封闭防除效果。结果显示:具有不同缓释时间的噁草酮-复合肥缓释颗粒剂按 180 kg/hm2(含噁草酮有效成分450 g/hm2) 于机插秧当天施用到田间,3~7 d后崩解释放,插秧后35 d时秧苗株高、地上部分鲜重及分蘖数显著高于对照药剂噁草酮乳油和吡嘧磺隆 • 西草净 • 扑草净可湿性粉剂在机插秧5 d后拌肥毒土法施用。噁草酮-复合肥缓释颗粒剂180 kg/hm2剂量下对田间主要杂草稗草、鸭舌草等的防效达90%以上,与两种对照药剂封闭处理杂草的防效相当。当噁草酮-复合肥缓释颗粒剂降低至80%用量 (144 kg/hm2) 时,对机插秧苗的安全性及田间杂草的防效与推荐剂量下的无显著差异。所有试验处理对机插秧苗无明显药害产生。此外,本研究还对噁草酮-复合肥缓释颗粒剂大面积机械化的应用技术进行了探索,采用改良的侧深施肥插秧机按180 kg/hm2的施药剂量在插秧的同时将该药肥颗粒均匀撒施在土壤表面,可实现机插秧同步精准机械用药,满足机插秧生产日益增长的省时省工需求。
  • 图  1  使用气吹式侧深施肥插秧机撒施缓释颗粒剂田间试验(左)及缓释颗粒剂在土表散落状态(右)

    Figure  1.  Field experiments for mechanical broadcasting of slow-release oxadiazon-fertilizer granule using improved multifunctional rice transplanter (left) and the scattered effect of the granules on the soil surface (right)

    表  1  试验设计及药剂处理信息

    Table  1.   Information of the experimental design and treatment

    试验组
    Experimental
    group
    处理
    Treatment
    除草剂有效
    成分用量
    Active
    ingredient dose/
    (g/hm2)
    颗粒剂用量或
    除草剂拌肥量
    Granule or herbicide-
    fertilizer mixture
    dose/(kg/hm2)
    用药时间和方式
    Application time and method
    缓释颗粒剂 A SROG-A1) 450 180 机插当天直接撒施
    On the transplanting day, granular broadcast
    缓释颗粒剂 B SROG-B
    缓释颗粒剂 C SROG-C
    噁草酮 EC oxadiazon EC 450 机插后 5 d 毒土法撒施
    Five days after transplanting, herbicide/fertilizer combination broadcast
    吡 • 西 • 扑 WP PSP2) WP 390
    空白对照 CK -- -- --
    缓释颗粒剂 BSROG-B 270 108 机插当天直接撒施
    On the transplanting day, granular broadcast
    360 144
    450 180
    540 216
    空白对照 CK -- -- --
    注:1) SROG代表噁草酮-复合肥缓释颗粒剂;SROG –A、B、C代表1.2节描述的3种不同缓释颗粒剂;2) PSP代表吡嘧磺隆 • 西草净 • 扑草净。Note: 1) SROG represents slow-release oxadiazon-fertilizer granule, and A, B, C refer to the three types of SROG with different coating material described in section 1.2;2) PSP represents pyrazosulfuron-ethyl + simetryne + prometryn.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同噁草酮-复合肥缓释颗粒剂对机插移栽田水稻秧苗的安全性 (药后20 d和35 d)1)

    Table  2.   Effect of different slow-release oxadiazon-fertilizer granules on the growth of mechanical transplanting rice seedlings (20 d and 35 d after application)1)

    处理
    Treatments
    除草剂有效成分
    Herbicide active
    ingredient dose/(g/hm2)
    株高
    Plant height/cm
    地上部分鲜重 (g/株)
    Aboveground fresh weight/(g/plant)
    分蘖数/株
    Tiller number/plant
    20 d35 d 20 d35 d 20 d35 d
    缓释颗粒剂A SROG-A2) 450 40.9 ± 0.1 b 2) 67.1 ± 0.7 abc 3.8 ± 0.1 a 14.2 ± 0.6 bc 2.8 ± 0.1 a 3.0 ± 0.2 a
    缓释颗粒剂B SROG-B 450 41.3 ± 0.5 b 68.7 ± 1.3 ab 3.6 ± 0.1 a 15.3 ± 0.5 ab 2.9 ± 0.1 a 3.1 ± 0.01 a
    缓释颗粒剂C SROG-C 450 43.4 ± 0.7 a 69.9 ± 0.8 a 3.5 ± 0.1 a 16.5 ± 0.4 a 3.0 ± 0.1 a 3.2 ± 0.2 a
    噁草酮EC oxadiazon EC 450 37.5 ± 0.4 d 63.8 ± 1.9 cd 2.7 ± 0.1 b 13.0 ± 0.5 c 2.4 ± 0.2 ab 2.8 ± 0.2 ab
    吡 • 西 • 扑 WP PSP3) WP 390 38.9 ± 0.2 c 66.0 ± 1.1 bcd 2.7 ± 0.2 b 13.4 ± 0.5 c 2.5 ± 0.1 ab 2.9 ± 0.2 ab
    空白对照 CK 0 39.3 ± 0.4 c 63.2 ± 0.5 d 2.5 ± 0.04 b 10.3 ± 0.5 d 2.2 ± 0.1 b 2.5 ± 0.05 b
    注:1) 表中数据为平均数 ± 标准误差。同列不同字母表示经Duncan氏新复极差法检验在P < 0.05水平差异显著;2) SROG代表噁草酮-复合肥缓释颗粒剂;SROG-A、B、C代表1.2节描述的3种不同缓释颗粒剂;3) PSP代表吡嘧磺隆 • 西草净 • 扑草净。Note: 1) Data are mean ± SE. Different lowercase letters in the same column indicate significant difference at P < 0.05 level by Duncan’s new multiple range test; 2) SROG represents slow-release oxadiazon-fertilizer granule, and A, B, C refer to the three types of SROG with different coating material described insection 1.2; 3) PSP represents pyrazosulfuron-ethyl + simetryne + prometryn.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同噁草酮-复合肥缓释颗粒剂对机插移栽田主要杂草的防除效果 (药后20 d和35 d)1)

    Table  3.   Weed control efficacy of different slow-release oxadiazon-fertilizer granules in mechanical transplanting rice field (20 d and 35 d after application)1)

    处理
    Treatments
    除草剂
    有效成分
    Herbicide active
    ingredient dose/
    (g/hm2)
    20 d 35 d
    株防效
    Plants control efficacy/%
    株防效
    Plants control efficacy/%
    鲜重防效
    Fresh weight control efficacy/%
    稗草
    Echinochloa spp.
    鸭舌草
    Monochoria vaginalis
    其他
    阔叶草
    Other broadleaf
    weeds
    稗草
    Echinochloa spp.
    鸭舌草
    Monochoria vaginalis
    其他
    阔叶草
    Other broadleaf
    weeds
    稗草
    Echinochloa spp.
    鸭舌草
    Monochoria vaginalis
    其他
    阔叶草
    Other broadleaf
    weeds
    缓释颗粒剂A
    SROG-A2)
    450 91.4 ± 1.8 a 91.1 ± 2.1 a 91.4 ± 2.4 a 91.5 ± 1.9 b 92.3 ± 3.1 a 92.5 ± 3.7 a 92.0 ± 1.7 b 93.1 ± 1.1 a 91.3 ± 2.5 b
    缓释颗粒剂B
    SROG-B
    450 94.3 ± 1.9 a 94.8 ± 1.4 a 92.6 ± 1.4 a 95.4 ± 0.9 a 95.1 ± 1.3 a 94.6 ± 2.1 a 94.8 ± 1.5 a 95.6 ± 1.1 a 94.5 ± 2.2 a
    缓释颗粒剂C
    SROG-C
    450 93.3 ± 1.8 a 94.8 ± 2.2 a 91.4 ± 2.4 a 94.6 ± 0.8 a 94.4 ± 2.0 a 93.6 ± 2.8 a 95.0 ± 1.3 a 94.7 ± 1.0 a 95.2 ± 1.5 a
    噁草酮EC
    oxadiazon EC
    450 91.4 ± 1.8 a 94.8 ± 1.4 a 88.9 ± 3.7 b 93.8 ± 1.3 ab 94.4 ± 1.6 a 90.3 ± 2.7 a 95.8 ± 0.8 a 93.8 ± 0.7 a 93.9 ± 1.0 a
    吡 • 西 • 扑WP
    PSP3) WP
    390 92.4 ± 2.2 a 92.6 ± 1.9 a 92.6 ± 2.5 a 93.1 ± 1.5 ab 93.7 ± 2.1 a 92.5 ± 2.1 a 93.5 ± 1.3 a 93.7 ± 1.2 a 91.8 ± 2.1 b
    注:1) 表中数据为平均数 ± 标准误差。同列不同字母表示经Duncan氏新复极差法检验在 P < 0.05水平差异显著;2) SROG代表噁草酮-复合肥缓释颗粒剂;SROG-A、B、C代表1.2节描述的3种不同缓释颗粒剂;3) PSP代表吡嘧磺隆 • 西草净 • 扑草净。Note: 1) Data are mean ± SE. Different lowercase letters in the same column indicate significant difference at P < 0.05 level by Duncan’s new multiple range test; 2) SROG represents slow-release oxadiazon-fertilizer granule, and A, B, C refer to the three types of SROG with different coating material described in section 1.2; 3) PSP represents pyrazosulfuron-ethyl + simetryne + prometryn.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  噁草酮-复合肥缓释颗粒剂不同剂量处理对机插移栽田水稻秧苗的安全性 (药后20 d和35 d)1)

    Table  4.   Effect of different rates of slow-release oxadiazon-fertilizer granule B on the growth of mechanical transplanting rice seedlings (20 d and 35 d after application)1)

    处理
    Treatments
    除草剂
    有效成分
    Herbicide active
    ingredient dose/
    (g/hm2)
    株高
    Plant height/cm
    地上部分鲜重 (g/株)
    Aboveground fresh weight/(g/plant)
    分蘖数/株
    Tiller number/plant
    20 d35 d20 d35 d20 d35 d
    缓释颗粒剂B SROG-B 2) 270 39.6 ± 0.9 b 65.0 ± 2.0 sbc 2.9 ± 0.2 bc 13.4 ± 0.6 a 2.6 ± 0.1 ab 2.8 ± 0.1 ab
    360 39.1 ± 2.8 b 64.2 ± 0.9 ab 3.3 ± 0.2 ab 13.9 ± 1.0 a 2.8 ± 0.1 a 3.0 ± 0.1 ab
    450 41.3 ± 0.6 a 68.7 ± 1.3 a 3.6 ± 0.1 a 14.2 ± 0.6 a 2.8 ± 0.05 a 3.3 ± 0.2 a
    540 39.0 ± 1.3 b 64.3 ± 0.8 bc 3.1 ± 0.3 abc 13.8 ± 0.9 a 2.4 ± 0.1 ab 2.9 ± 0.1 ab
    空白对照 CK 0 39.5 ± 0.5 b 62.9 ± 0.6 c 2.5 ± 0.1 c 10.2 ± 0.6 b 2.2 ± 0.1 b 2.5 ± 0.05 b
    注:1) 表中数据为平均数 ± 标准误差。同列不同字母表示经Duncan氏新复极差法检验在 P < 0.05水平差异显著;2) SROG-B代表1.2节描述的噁草酮-复合肥缓释颗粒剂B。Note: 1) Data are mean ± SE. Different lowercase letters in the same column indicate significant difference at P < 0.05 level by Duncan’s new multiple range test; 2) SROG-B represents slow-release oxadiazon-fertilizer granule B described in section 1.2.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  噁草酮-复合肥缓释颗粒剂不同剂量处理对机插移栽田主要杂草的防除效果 (药后20 d和35 d)1)

    Table  5.   Weed control efficacy of oxadiazon-fertilizer granule B with different dose of slow-release in mechanical transplanting rice field (20 d and 35 d after application)1)

    处理
    Treatments
    除草剂
    有效成分
    Herbicide active
    ingredient dose/
    (g/hm2)
    20 d 35 d
    株防效
    Plants control efficacy/%
    株防效
    Plants control efficacy/%
    鲜重防效
    Fresh weight control efficacy/%
    稗草
    Echinochloa spp.
    鸭舌草
    Monochoria vaginalis
    其他
    阔叶草
    Other
    broadleaf
    weeds
    稗草
    Echinochloa spp.
    鸭舌草
    Monochoria vaginalis
    其他
    阔叶草
    Other
    broadleaf
    weeds
    稗草
    Echinochloa spp.
    鸭舌草
    Monochoria vaginalis
    其他
    阔叶草
    Other
    broadleaf
    weeds
    缓释颗粒剂B
    SROG-B 2)
    270 88.6 ± 1.6 b 93.3 ± 1.4 a 92.6 ± 1.4 a 89.2 ± 1.5 b 90.2 ± 1.8 b 90.3 ± 2.1 a 89.8 ± 1.8 b 90.4 ± 0.7 b 92.6 ± 2.1 a
    360 88.9 ± 0.7 b 92.6 ± 1.4 a 94.3 ± 2.5 a 92.3 ± 2.7 ab 92.3 ± 3.3 b 92.5 ± 3.2 a 92.9 ± 0.9 ab 91.3 ± 1.8 b 94.8 ± 1.3 a
    450 91.4 ± 2.4 a 93.3 ± 1.8 a 94.1 ± 1.7 a 94.6 ± 0.8 a 95.1 ± 1.3 a 93.6 ± 2.8 a 94.9 ± 1.5 a 95.6 ± 1.1 a 94.6 ± 2.2 a
    540 92.4 ± 1.6 a 94.8 ± 1.4 a 92.6 ± 3.2 a 94.6 ± 2.3 a 93.7 ± 2.6 ab 92.5 ± 1.1 a 93.7 ± 1.3 a 93.4 ± 2.4 ab 94.4 ± 0.9 a
    注:1) 表中数据为平均数 ± 标准误差。同列不同字母表示经Duncan氏新复极差法检验在 P < 0.05水平差异显著;2) SROG-B代表1.2节描述的噁草酮-复合肥缓释颗粒剂 B。
    Note: 1) Data are mean ± SE. Different lowercase letters in the same column indicate significant difference at P < 0.05 level by Duncan’s new multiple range test;2) SROG-B represents slow-release oxadiazon-fertilizer granule B described in section 1.2.
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2020-09-24
  • 录用日期:  2020-10-16
  • 网络出版日期:  2020-12-07

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