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不同助剂、喷头及喷雾压力对自走式喷杆喷雾机稻田喷雾效果的影响

杨锐 徐翔 王学贵 贡常委 张韫政 阮彦伟 杨德斌 杨旭东

杨锐, 徐翔, 王学贵, 贡常委, 张韫政, 阮彦伟, 杨德斌, 杨旭东. 不同助剂、喷头及喷雾压力对自走式喷杆喷雾机稻田喷雾效果的影响[J]. 农药学学报. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0035
引用本文: 杨锐, 徐翔, 王学贵, 贡常委, 张韫政, 阮彦伟, 杨德斌, 杨旭东. 不同助剂、喷头及喷雾压力对自走式喷杆喷雾机稻田喷雾效果的影响[J]. 农药学学报. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0035
Rui YANG, Xiang XU, Xuegui WANG, Changwei GONG, Yunzheng ZHANG, Yanwei RUAN, Debin YANG, Xudong YANG. Effects of different auxiliaries, spray nozzles and spray pressures of self-propelled boom sprayer on spray effect in paddy filed[J]. Chinese Journal of Pesticide Science. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0035
Citation: Rui YANG, Xiang XU, Xuegui WANG, Changwei GONG, Yunzheng ZHANG, Yanwei RUAN, Debin YANG, Xudong YANG. Effects of different auxiliaries, spray nozzles and spray pressures of self-propelled boom sprayer on spray effect in paddy filed[J]. Chinese Journal of Pesticide Science. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0035

不同助剂、喷头及喷雾压力对自走式喷杆喷雾机稻田喷雾效果的影响

doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0035
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划项目 (2018YFD0200300)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    杨锐,男,硕士研究生,E-mail:849156762@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    王学贵,通信作者 (Author for correspondence),男,教授,主要从事农药毒理学研究,E-mail:wangxuegui@sicau.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: S49;S482.92

Effects of different auxiliaries, spray nozzles and spray pressures of self-propelled boom sprayer on spray effect in paddy filed

  • 摘要: 以亿丰丸山3WP-500CN型号自走式喷杆喷雾机为研究对象,以诱惑红85作为指示剂,测定了6种喷雾助剂 (红太阳、倍力、迈丝、融透、印楝油和哈速腾)、3种喷头 (TEEJET-VP80015、ASJ-VP110015和LICHENG-VP11003) 以及3种喷雾压力 (0.2、0.4 和0.6 MPa) 对农药沉积利用率、药液雾化性能 (D50、雾滴密度等)、雾滴分布均匀性等喷雾参数的影响,以及240 g/L噻呋酰胺悬浮剂对纹枯病防治效果及水稻产量的影响。结果表明:采用TEEJET-VP80015喷头,在0.4 MPa喷雾压力条件下,助剂哈速腾雾滴分布均匀性显著高于其他助剂,变异系数为0.11,同时对雾滴估计沉积量 (45.74 μL/cm2) 与分布跨度 (1.29) 的影响显著高于其他助剂;助剂迈丝对雾滴密度 (103.78个/cm2) 和农药沉积利用率 (83.88%) 的影响均显著高于其他助剂。采用TEEJET-VP80015喷头,在未添加助剂条件下,不同喷雾压力对雾滴分布跨度、雾滴附着率和农药沉积利用率影响差异显著,其中在0.6 MPa压力下,分布跨度为1.18,雾滴附着率为33.32%,农药沉积利用率为78.19%。在未添加助剂、0.4 MPa喷雾压力条件下,喷头LICHENG-VP11003对雾滴分布均匀性的影响显著高于另外两种喷头,变异系数为0.12,同时对雾滴覆盖率 (69.37%)、雾滴估计沉积量 (42.77 μL/cm2) 和农药沉积利用率 (75.79%) 的影响也显著高于另外两种喷头。各测定条件下240 g/L噻呋酰胺悬浮剂对水稻纹枯病的防治效果与雾化性能和雾化参数结果一致,其中添加助剂迈丝后防治效果达到89.27%,显著高于添加其他助剂,增大喷雾压力到0.6 MPa,防治效果达到88.67%,显著高于其他压力条件;采用TEEJET-VP80015喷头,在0.4 MPa喷雾压力下,水稻产量为8301 kg/hm2,显著高于人工喷雾。因此,助剂与喷头均对自走式喷杆喷雾机施药时的农药沉积利用率、雾滴分布均匀性以及雾滴参数和雾化效果有显著的影响,在适当的喷雾压力下添加助剂可提高农药的防治效果。
  • 图  1  田间作业路径及布样点示意图

    Figure  1.  Field working path and sampling point

    图  2  不同施药条件下的沉积雾滴性能参数

    注:A:红太阳; B:倍力;C:迈丝; D:融透; E:印楝油; F:哈速腾。G:0.2 MPa; H:0.4 MPa; I:0.6 MPa。J:ASJ-VP110015;K:LICHENG-VP11003; L:TEEJET-VP80015; CK:人工喷雾。

    Figure  2.  Performance parameters of deposition droplets with different spray

    Note: A: Red Sun; B: Pele; C: Maisi; D: Rongtou; E: Neem oil; F: Hasuteng.G: 0.2 MPa; H: 0.4 MPa; I: 0.6 MPa. J: ASJ-VP110015; K: LICHENG-VP11003; L: TEEJET-VP80015; CK: Artificial spray.

    图  3  不同助剂、喷雾压力和喷头条件下噻呋酰胺对水稻纹枯病防效的影响

    注:A:红太阳; B:倍力;C:迈丝; D:融透; E:印楝油; F:哈速腾。G:0.2 MPa; H:0.4 MPa; I:0.6 MPa。J:ASJ-VP110015;K:LICHENG-VP11003; L:TEEJET-VP80015; CK:人工喷雾。图中不同小写字母表示应用Duncan氏新复极差法检验在0.05水平差异显著。

    Figure  3.  Effects of control efficacy of thifuramide on the rice sheath blight disease under different auxiliaries, pressures and nozzles

    Note: A: Red Sun; B: Pele; C: Maisi; D: Rongtou; E: Neem oil; F: Hasuteng.G: 0.2 MPa; H: 0.4 MPa; I: 0.6 MPa. J: ASJ-VP110015; K: LICHENG-VP11003; L: TEEJET-VP80015; CK: Artificial spray. Data followed by the same letters in figure are significantly different at 0.05 level according to Duncan’s new multiple range method.

    图  4  不同助剂、喷雾压力及喷头对水稻产量的影响

    注:A:红太阳; B:倍力;C:迈丝; D:融透; E:印楝油; F:哈速腾。G:0.2 MPa; H:0.4 MPa; I:0.6 MPa。J:ASJ-VP110015; K:LICHENG-VP11003; L:TEEJET-VP80015; CK:人工喷雾。图中不同小写字母表示应用Duncan氏新复极差法检验在0.05水平差异显著。

    Figure  4.  Effects of different auxiliaries, pressures and nozzles on rice yield

    Note: A: Red Sun; B: Pele; C: Maisi; D: Rongtou; E: Neem oil; F: Hasuteng.G: 0.2 MPa; H: 0.4 MPa; I: 0.6 MPa. J: ASJ-VP110015; K: LICHENG-VP11003; L: TEEJET-VP80015; CK: Artificial spray. Data followed by the same letters in figure are significantly different at 0.05 level according to Duncan’s new multiple range method.

    表  1  试验设计

    Table  1.   Test design

    处理
    Treatment
    助剂种类
    Auxiliary
    喷雾压力
    Pressure/MPa
    喷头类型 
    Nozzle 
    喷雾流量
    Spray flow/(L/min)
    1 红太阳 Red Sun 0.4 TEEJET-VP80015 0.870
    2 倍力 Pele 0.4 TEEJET-VP80015 0.870
    3 迈丝 Maisi 0.4 TEEJET-VP80015 0.870
    4 融透 Rongtou 0.4 TEEJET-VP80015 0.870
    5 印楝油 Neem Oil 0.4 TEEJET-VP80015 0.870
    6 哈速腾 Hasuteng 0.4 TEEJET-VP80015 0.870
    7 0.2 TEEJET-VP80015 0.643
    8 0.4 TEEJET-VP80015 0.870
    9 0.6 TEEJET-VP80015 1.051
    10 0.4 ASJ-VP110015 0.699
    11 0.4 LICHENG-VP11003 1.466
    12 0.4 TEEJET-VP80015 0.870
    对照 CK 0.5 单喷喷头 Single nozzle 1.739
    注:“—”表示未添加助剂。Note: “—” means no auxiliary was added.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同助剂、喷雾压力及喷头类型对雾滴性能与雾化效果的影响

    Table  2.   Effects of different auxiliaries, spray pressures, spray nozzles on the performance and atomization quality of deposition droplets

    处理
    Treatment
    雾滴粒径
    Droplet size/μm
    雾滴覆盖率
    Droplet
    covering
    rate/%
    雾滴密度
    Droplet
    density/
    (droplet/cm2)
    雾滴估计
    沉积量
    Droplet deposit
    rate/(μL/cm2)
    S值
    S value
    变异系数
    CV
    D10D50D90
    助剂
    Auxiliaries
    红太阳
    Red Sun
    162.2 ± 80.9 a 301.7 ± 17.2 a 411.8 ± 23.1 ab 53.3 ± 1.2 ab 37.8 ± 3.1 b 19.5 ± 1.5 b 0.83 ± 0.05 a 0.42 ± 0.06 b
    倍力 Pele 114.9 ± 38.3 a 233.2 ± 72.16 a 344.6 ± 108.3 b 53.7 ± 6.1 ab 69.5 ± 21.4 ab 21.1 ± 8.6 b 1.02 ± 0.11 ab 0.27 ± 0.02 ab
    迈丝 Maisi 109.0 ± 42.2 a 224.6 ± 74.5 a 312.8 ± 94.9 b 49.5 ± 5.9 b 103.9 ± 30.6 a 15.7 ± 7.2 b 1.04 ± 0.16 ab 0.20 ± 0.07 ab
    融透 Rongtou 114.2 ± 18.8 a 297.7 ± 48.8 a 451.4 ± 80.8 ab 59.0 ± 4.2 ab 59.0 ± 14.8 ab 27.2 ± 8.1 ab 1.13 ± 0.07 b 0.22 ± 0.07 ab
    印楝油
    Neem Oil
    136.4 ± 28.0 a 328.8 ± 58.5 a 521.3 ± 97.5 ab 62.7 ± 5.2 ab 52.7 ± 23.5 ab 36.4 ± 9.8 ab 1.15 ± 0.10 b 0.29 ± 0.13 ab
    哈速腾
    Hasuteng
    134.2 ± 14.0 a 376.1 ± 62.9 a 618.1 ± 11.0 a 66.3 ± 2.3 a 19.2 ± 2.6 b 45.7 ± 2.6 a 1.29 ± 0.07 b 0.11 ± 0.04 a
    FF value 0.759 1.351 2.360 2.297 2.880 3.192 3.279 3.528
    PP value 0.588 0.278 0.071 0.077 0.036 0.024 0.021 0.034
    喷雾压力
    Spray pressures
    0.2 MPa 148.0 ± 20.8 a 334.3 ± 42.3 a 503.0 ± 80.3 a 68.1 ± 5.5 a 29.0 ± 11.3 a 37.4 ± 9.9 a 1.02 ± 0.10 b 0.23 ± 0.10 a
    0.4 MPa 127.2 ± 24.1 a 259.7 ± 36.9 a 361.0 ± 49.6 a 56.7 ± 2.1 a 68.7 ± 9.2 a 18.9 ± 4.0 a 0.91 ± 0.04 ab 0.19 ± 0.07 a
    0.6 MPa 123.1 ± 21.8 a 324.2 ± 56.8 a 524.5 ± 94.5 a 61.0 ± 7.9 a 49.2 ± 23.8 a 38.6 ± 8.0 a 1.18 ± 0.08 a 0.17 ± 0.09 a
    FF value 0.290 0.912 1.636 1.364 1.915 2.860 3.915 0.739
    PP value 0.751 0.420 0.222 0.281 0.176 0.083 0.039 0.517
    喷头类型
    Spray nozzles
    TEEJET-VP80015 127.2 ± 24.1 a 259.7 ± 36.9 ab 361.0 ± 53.5 b 56.7 ± 2.1 b 68.7 ± 9.2 a 18.6 ± 4.0 b 0.91 ± 0.04 a 0.19 ± 0.07 b
    ASJ-VP110015 75.9 ± 14.9 a 184.1 ± 43.6 b 236.1 ± 49.4 b 44.4 ± 3.4 c 65.3 ± 17.7 a 19.2 ± 2.3 b 0.89 ± 0.08 a 0.18 ± 0.01 b
    LICHENG-VP11003 139.6 ± 25.6 a 362.4 ± 26.0 a 570.0 ± 68.9 a 69.4 ± 4.2 a 23.5 ± 7.1 b 42.8 ± 9.0 a 1.17 ± 0.17 a 0.12 ± 0.06 a
    FF value 1.297 3.498 5.515 13.515 3.998 7.972 2.76 5.767
    PP value 0.304 0.059 0.017 0.001 0.042 0.005 0.098 0.04
    注:表中数据为平均值 ± 标准误,同列数据后不同字母表示应用Duncan氏新复极差法在0.05水平上差异显著。Note: The data in the table are mean ± SE, and those followed by different letters indicated significantly different at the 0.05 level according to Duncan’s new multiple range method.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同助剂、喷雾压力和喷头对雾滴附着率与农药沉积利用率的影响

    Table  3.   Effects of different auxiliaries, pressures and nozzles on the adherence rate of droplets and the utilization rate of pesticide deposition

    处理
    Treatment
    雾滴附着率
    Adherence rate of droplets /%
    农药沉积利用率
    Utilization rate of pesticide deposition /%
    助剂种类1)
    Auxiliary type1)
    红太阳 Red Sun 32.56 ± 4.20 a 70.96 ± 0.53 c
    倍力 Pele 28.98 ± 4.39 a 69.26 ± 1.47 c
    迈丝 Maisi 36.16 ± 3.62 a 83.88 ± 1.57 a
    融透 Rongtou 30.92 ± 0.80 a 69.88 ± 2.18 c
    印楝油 Neem Oil 24.00 ± 3.43 a 68.09 ± 1.22 c
    哈速腾 Hasuteng 34.85 ± 8.16 a 76.75 ± 1.91 b
    红太阳 Red Sun 32.56 ± 4.20 a 70.96 ± 0.53 c
    喷雾压力2)
    Spray pressure2)
    0.2 MPa 19.23 ± 2.40 c 69.23 ± 0.44 c
    0.4 MPa 23.35 ± 4.04 b 73.88 ± 0.64 b
    0.6 MPa 33.32 ± 4.24 a 78.19 ± 0.63 a
    喷头类型3)
    Nozzle type3)
    TEEJET-VP80015 23.35 ± 4.04 a 73.88 ± 0.64 b
    ASJ-VP110015 21.13 ± 4.73 a 67.86 ± 0.23 c
    LICHENG-VP11003 25.14 ± 2.57 a 75.79 ± 0.67 a
    注:表中数据为平均值 ± 标准误,同列不同字母表示应用Duncan氏新复极差法在0.05水平上差异显著。1) 采用TEEJET-VP80015喷头,喷雾压力0.4 MPa;2) 采用TEEJET-VP80015喷头,不添加助剂;3) 不添加助剂,喷雾压力0.4 MPa.Note: The data in the table are mean ± SE, and those followed by different letters indicated significantly different at 0.05 level according to Duncan’s new multiple range method. 1) Using the TEEJET-VP80015 nozzle and 0.4 MPa spray pressure; 2) Using the TEEJET-VP80015 nozzle without auxiliary; 3) At 0.4 MPa spray pressure without auxiliary.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  自走式喷杆喷雾机与人工喷雾比较

    Table  4.   Comparison between self-propelled boom sprayer and artificial spray

    喷雾方法
    Spray method
    农药沉积利用率
    Pesticide utilization
    rate of deposition/%
    雾滴附着率
    Adherence rate of droplets/%
    变异系数
    CV
    防治效果
    Control efficiency/%
    水稻产量
    Rice yield/ (kg/hm2)
    自走式喷杆喷雾机喷雾
    Self-propelled boom sprayer
    73.88 ± 0.64 a 23.35 ± 4.04 a 0.19 ± 0.07 a 86.27 ± 0.78 a 8301.6 ± 64.5 a
    人工喷雾 Artificial spray 51.06 ± 2.37 b 17.30 ± 1.35 b 0.41 ± 0.10 b 76.13 ± 1.70 b 8029.7 ± 105.0 b
    FF value 227.946 8.166 17.476 29.398 8.463
    PP value 0.000 0.021 0.014 0.001 0.020
    注:表中数据为平均值 ± 标准误,同列不同字母表示应用Duncan氏新复极差法在0.05水平上差异显著。Note: The data in the table are mean ± SE, and those followed by different letters indicated significantly different at 0.05 level according to Duncan’s new multiple range method.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-07-14
  • 录用日期:  2020-09-05
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-04-08

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